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nef, short for Nefertiti, mother of Ankhesenamun, is a toolset to ease the creation of documentation in the form of Xcode Playgrounds. It provides compile-time verification of documentation, exports it in Markdown format that can be consumed by Jekyll to generate websites, and export Carbon snippets for a given Xcode Playground.

nef is inspired by ΛNK for Kotlin and tut for Scala.


💡 Eases the creation of Xcode Playgrounds with support for third party libraries.

💡 Compiles Xcode Playgrounds with support for 3rd-party libraries from the command line.

💡 Builds a Playground Book for iPad with external dependencies defined in a Swift Package.

💡 Generates Markdown project from nef Playground.

💡 Generates Markdown files that can be consumed from Jekyll to create a microsite.

💡 Export Carbon code snippets for a given nef Playground.


💻 Installation

📟 Using Homebrew (preferred)

➜ brew install nef

It will warn you if there is a missing dependency and will provide guidance to install it.


📦 Using Swift Package Manager

nef can be consumed as a library in your macOS project.

.package(url: "https://github.com/bow-swift/nef.git", from: "{version}")

It is an excellent option if you want to use all nef features in your macOS app, even to build new tooling on top of nef.

You can read more about how to use nef library in the nef site.


🔌 Using Xcode Editor Extension

Some of nef features can be used directly in Xcode as an Extension. You can install it directly from App Store or downloading the last binary from the releases section.



📃 Creating a nef Playground

Xcode Playgrounds are a nice tool for prototyping and trying new concepts. However, third party libraries support is a bit cumbersome to add. One of the goals of nef is to make the creation of an Xcode Playground easier with support for one or more libraries.

By default, nef can create an Xcode Playground with support for Bow, the Functional Programming companion library for Swift.

➜ nef playground

And you can use the following option to specify the name for the nef Playground that you are creating:

➜ nef playground --output ~/Desktop --name LatestBowProject

It will create an Xcode project with support for the latest available version of Bow, named LatestBowProject in your ~/Desktop. If you open this nef playground, you will find an Xcode Playground where you can import Bow or any of its modules, and start trying some of its features.

By default, nef playground will be created for iOS platform. If you need to change it, you can use the --platform option.

➜ nef playground --platform osx

If you need to take advantage of nef in your Xcode Playgrounds, you can transform your Xcode Playground into a nef Playground using the following command:

➜ nef playground --playground <Xcode Playground>

Where <Xcode Playground> is the path to your Xcode Playground.

📣 You can create a nef Playground compatible with any different Bow version, branch or commit; even third-party dependencies

Note: The next options are mutually exclusive.

  • --bow-version <x.y.z>: Specify the version of Bow that you want to use in the project. This option lets you test an old version of the library in an Xcode Playground. Example:
➜ nef playground --name OldBowProject --bow-version 0.3.0

  • --bow-branch <branch name>: Specify the branch of Bow that you want to use in the project. This option lets you test features of Bow that are still in development in a branch that has not been merged or released yet. Example:
➜ nef playground --name BranchBowProject --bow-branch master

  • --bow-commit <commit hash>: Specify the commit hash of Bow that you want to use in the project. This option lets you test features of Bow exactly at the moment you need, released or not. Example:
➜ nef playground --name CommitBowProject --bow-commit e70c739067be1f5700f8b692523e1bb8931c7236

  • --podfile <podfile>: Specify a Podfile with your own dependencies. This option lets you create a Playground with support for other libraries. Create a Podfile listing your dependencies and pass it to nef. Example:

Your Podfile, located in ./folder/dependencies:

target 'MyPodsProject' do
  platform :osx, '10.14'

  pod 'Bow', '~> 0.3.0'
➜ nef playground --name MyPodsProject --podfile ./folder/dependencies/Podfile

  • --cartfile <cartfile>: Specify a Cartfile with your dependencies. Create a Cartfile listing your dependencies and pass it to nef. Example:

Your Cartfile, located in ./folder/dependencies:

github "bow-swift/Bow"
➜ nef playground --name MyCarthageProject --cartfile ./folder/dependencies/Cartfile


🔨 Compiling a nef Playground

Xcode lets you check for correctness of your Xcode Playground and run it. However, Apple does not provide us commands to compile an Xcode Playground, as they do for building Xcode projects. It is particularly useful in Continuous Integration when you want to verify that your playgrounds are not broken when the libraries you depend on are updated. nef has an option to compile a nef Playground. To do this, you can run the following command:

➜ nef compile --project <nef playground>

If you need to transform your Xcode Playground into a nef Playground you can check Creating a nef Playground section.

Where <nef playground> is the path to nef Playground where your playgrounds are located. Also, you can use the following option with this command:

  • --use-cache: Use cached dependencies if it is possible, in another case, it will download them. Example:
➜ nef compile --project <nef playground> --use-cache

You can also clean the result of the compilation:

➜ nef clean --project <nef playground>


📲 Creating a Playground Book

Swift Playgrounds is a revolutionary app that makes possible to write Swift code on an iPad. In the latest updates, Swift Playgrounds 3.x has added a new feature: UserModules; it lets you include swift code and make it available across multiple chapters like modules.

nef takes advantage of these new possibilities and advancements in Swift Package Manager to build a Playground Book with external dependencies from a Swift Package specification.

Given a Package.swift like the next one:

// swift-tools-version:5.2

import PackageDescription

let package = Package(
    name: "BowProject",
    dependencies: [
        .package(url: "https://github.com/bow-swift/bow.git", from: "0.8.0"),

you can run the following command:

➜ nef ipad --name PlaygroundName --package Package.swift --output ~/Desktop

It will create a Playground Book (PlaygroundName) with support for the external dependencies and save it in ~/Desktop


  • --name: the name for the Playground Book to build.
  • --package: path to the Swift Package specification.
  • --output: path where the resulting Playground Book will be generated.


🔖 Generating a Markdown project

Xcode Playgrounds let you write comments in Markdown format using the symbols //: for single line comments, or /*: */ for multiline comments. Inside these comments, you can use any Markdown syntax; an example:

 # This is a heading 1

 This is regular text. *This is bold text*. [This is a link](http://bow-swift.io).
protocol MyProtocol {}

//: ## This is a single line heading 2

It makes Xcode Playgrounds the proper tool to write an article with compilable examples. The command provided by nef to generate the Markdown files is:

➜ nef markdown --project <nef playground> --output <path>


  • --project: Path to your nef Playground.
  • --output: Path where the resulting Markdown project will be generated.


🌐 Generating Markdown files for Jekyll

As you can write comments in Markdown in Xcode Playgrounds, this makes it very suitable to write documentation with compilable examples. Leveraging this, nef can create Markdown files that can be consumed from Jekyll to generate a microsite. The command to do this is:

➜ nef jekyll --project <nef playground> --output <path> --main-page <main-page>


  • --project: Path to your nef Playground.
  • --output: Path where the resulting Markdown files will be generated.
  • --main-page: Optional. Path to 'README.md' file to be used as the index page of the generated microsite.

📣 How to setup a nef Playgroud for Jekyll?

nef finds all the Xcode Playgrounds in a nef Playground. Each playground is considered a section in the generated microsite structure. For each page in a playground, an entry in the corresponding section is created. The page is transformed from Swift to Markdown using the syntax described above. As a result, a directory structure matching the nef Playground structure is generated, together with a sidebar.yml that can be used as a menu in Jekyll.

nef adds some commands to modify the Markdown transformation process. All nef commands are included as Swift comments. They begin with // nef:begin: and end with // nef:end. The supported commands are:

  • header: It lets you add metadata to a playground page to be consumed by Jekyll. You must provide the layout that this page will use in Jekyll. The remaining attributes are optional, and you may include any of them according to your Jekyll configuration. nef will take care of the permalinks as well. Example (at the beginning of the playground page):
// nef:begin:header
  layout: docs
// nef:end
  • hidden: It lets you hide a portion of your playground in the output Markdown file. It is useful to hide imports or supporting utility code to make an example work. Example:
// nef:begin:hidden
import Bow // This will be hidden in the Markdown file
// nef:end

struct Person {} // This will be present in the Markdown file


🌁 Exporting Carbon code snippets

Xcode Playgrounds are a great place for prototyping and trying new concepts. Oftentimes we want to share some Swift snippets. Carbon is a cool tool for this, and nef nicely integrates with it. You can take your nef Playground, write several pieces of code, and keep it verified. Later, you can export all your code snippets with the next command:

➜ nef carbon --project <nef playground> --output <path>


  • --project: Path to your nef Playground.
  • --output: Path where the resulting Carbon snippets will be generated.

📣 You can customize the output with the next commands

Command Description Format Options Default
--background Background color applied to image hexadecimal #AABBCC, #AABBCCDD or predefined colors nef bow white
green blue yellow
--theme Carbon's theme to be applied String base16-dark blackboard cobalt duotone-dark dracula hopscotch lucario material monokai night-owl nord oceanic-next one-dark panda-syntax paraiso-dark seti shades-of-purple synthwave-84 tomorrow-night-bright twilight verminal vscode zenburn dracula
--size Export file dimensions Number [1, 5] 2
--font Font type String firaCode hack inconsolata iosevka monoid anonymousPro sourceCodePro darkMono droidMono fantasqueMono ibmPlexMono spaceMono ubuntuMono firaCode
--show-lines shows/hides number of lines in code snippet Bool true false true
--show-watermark shows/hides watermark in code snippet Bool true false true

Example of use

If we have a project created by nef, and an Xcode playground with the next content:

let example = "This is an example"
print("nef is super cool: \(example)")

// nef is super cool: This is an example

Running the following command, we will customize the background color to #d54048 bow, hide the number of lines, and set the export file to size 3:

➜ nef carbon --project . --output ~/Desktop/nef-carbon --background bow --size 3 --show-lines false


❤️ Contributing to the project

You can contribute in different ways to make nef better:

  • File an issue if you encounter a bug or malfunction in nef.
  • Suggest a new use case or feature for nef.
  • Open a Pull Request fixing a problem or adding new functionality. You can check the Issues to see some of the pending tasks.
  • Discuss with us in the Gitter channel for Bow about all the above.

How to run the project

Open project/nef.xcodeproj in Xcode 11 (or newer) and you are ready to go. nef uses the [Swift Package Manager] to handle its dependencies - they will be resolving automatically from Xcode.

How to run the documentation project

  • Go to main directory where you can find the nef Playground Documentation.app.
  • Run nef compile --project Documentation.app to set up the project with its dependencies.
  • Open Documentation.app

For further information, refer to our Contribution guidelines.


⚖️ License

Copyright (C) 2019 The nef Authors

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at


Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.


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nef version 0.6.1 - 2020-04-30 13:57:59

Misc. Updates

  • Update nef to use Swift 5.2+
  • Add support to Linux. You can import nef in Linux and use the next modules: NefCommon, NefMarkdown, NefJekyll and NefPlaygroundBook. You can find more information about the API on the nef site.

nef version 0.6.0 - 2020-03-19 18:14:58

Misc. Updates

This version finishes the modularization we started in nef 0.4.

  • nef ♡ FP Functional Programming encourages us to write modular and testable code, improving maintainability; In the end, it leads us to write robust and trustworthy code. Following this goal, and taking advantage of Bow, we have rewritten nef using a functional approach from the core to the UI.
  • API Reference this version provides multiple APIs. You can go to new API section in the site for more information.
  • Official integration with Homebrew nef has been included in the main repository 🎉

nef version 0.5.2 - 2020-01-09 13:01:11

Misc. Updates

Swift Playgrounds with support for 3rd-party libraries on iPads (tracked in bow-swift/nef#92, bow-swift/nef#102, bow-swift/nef#103, bow-swift/nef#104)

It needs to use Swift Playground app version 3.x

nef version 0.4.0 - 2019-11-25 17:47:20

Misc. Updates

  • Improvements in nef Playground system. (tracked in #97)
  • Adds a new dependency manager, Carthage (tracked in #87 #88 #89 #90 #91 #99)
  • Opens nef features to developers. (tracked in #80 #81 #82 #84 #98)
  • Upgrade Xcode Editor Extension to nef 0.4. More information in the repository.

nef version 0.3.2 - 2019-10-02 16:47:49

Misc. Updates

  • Update templates to keep compatibility to Bow version 0.6

nef version 0.3.1 - 2019-07-15 13:24:42

Misc. Updates

  • New white version design for the watermark.

Bug Fixes

  • Upgrade CLI carbon to use the website directly and not embedded version. It will keep update nef into future Carbon's releases (tracked in https://github.com/bow-swift/nef/pull/83)

nef version 0.3.0 - 2019-07-09 16:30:13

Misc. Updates

  • Carbon integration (tracked in https://github.com/bow-swift/nef/issues/40)
  • Improve nef compiler (tracked in https://github.com/bow-swift/nef/pull/54)
  • Added option to CLI for checking the nef version (tracked in https://github.com/bow-swift/nef/pull/72)
  • Creates the microsite (tracked in https://github.com/bow-swift/nef/pull/46, https://github.com/bow-swift/nef/pull/51, https://github.com/bow-swift/nef/pull/52)

Bug Fixes

  • Remove unuseful folders after initialising a project using nef playground (tracked in https://github.com/bow-swift/nef/pull/63)
  • if you copy-paste, an existing playground in an existing nef project, the logic tree for Xcode project gets absolute paths instead of relative (tracked in https://github.com/bow-swift/nef/pull/69)
  • If the project name input is the same as the playground page, then Jekyll and Markdown options remove the project folder and fails (tracked in https://github.com/bow-swift/nef/pull/70)

nef version 0.2.2 - 2019-06-17 09:59:35

Bug Fixes

Fix bug in nef playground - the project isn't being generated correctly (solved in https://github.com/bow-swift/nef/pull/63)

nef version 0.2.1 - 2019-06-07 15:12:59

Bug Fixes

1 Fix bug in the nef's compiler using statically linked binaries (not supported in Darwin architectures). Compiles the user dependencies (Playground/Sources/*) together with the page.swift and using the options

  • -F to determinate where Apple frameworks are.
  • -Xlinker search recursively in the Apple Frameworks for selected SDK.

Darwin architectures (iOS, macos) does not allow statically linked binaries (it only allows static libs). You can read more information about it here.

2 In iOS systems updated the architecture used. Migrates from x86_64 to arm*

XCTest doesn't support x86_64 arch, only arm* (in iOS)

nef version 0.2 - 2019-05-28 23:05:21

Misc. Updates

  • Build Markdown documents directly from Swift Playgrounds
  • Update README with the new features: Markdown Support, compatibility with XCTest, ...

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed a bug for creating the path from relative paths.
  • Fixed a bug in the compiler when Playground's page filename contains spaces and it has some dependency.

nef version 0.1.7 - 2019-04-26 13:29:59

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed a bug in nefc linker: added supports to use/compile Apple frameworks like XCTest.

Misc. Updates

  • Added supports to XCTest: now you can import XCTest and use NefTest helper to run your test cases. ex. use: Nef.run(testCase: ExampleTests.self)
  • Support for caching nefc. Build project and dependencies using previously cached ouputs - if it is possible. ex. use: nef compile . --use-cache

nef version 0.1.6 - 2019-04-19 20:17:28

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed a bug which caused compilation error when the current path includes a directory with a space in it. See PR #35
  • Fixed a bug in nef Jekyll: reading the arguments in the command line

Misc. Updates

  • Remove unuseful assets folder in the template for Swift Playground

nef version 0.1.5 - 2019-04-17 12:43:11

Misc. Updates

  • Migrated project to Swift 5.

nef version 0.1.4 - 2019-04-16 09:08:27

Misc. Updates

  • Verbose mode for the building project.

nef version 0.1.3 - 2019-04-09 08:49:25

Misc. Updates

  • Added iOS platform supports to Swift Playgrounds.

nef version 0.1.2 - 2019-03-26 13:15:51

nef version 0.1.1 - 2019-03-25 16:38:54

nef version 0.1.0 - 2019-03-20 11:05:44