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swift-libp2p/swift-cid 0.0.1
Self-describing content-addressed identifiers for distributed systems
⭐️ 0
🕓 2 weeks ago
macOS
.package(url: "https://github.com/swift-libp2p/swift-cid.git", from: "0.0.1")

CID (Content IDentifier)

Swift Package Manager compatible Build & Test (macos and linux)

Self-describing content-addressed identifiers for distributed systems

Table of Contents

Overview

A CID is a self-describing content-addressed identifier. It uses cryptographic hashes to achieve content addressing. It uses several multiformats to achieve flexible self-description, namely multihash for hashes, multicodec for data content types, and multibase to encode the CID itself into strings.

Install

To use CID in your swift project simply include the package as a dependency in your Package.swift

let package = Package(
    ...
    dependencies: [
        // Dependencies declare other packages that this package depends on.
        .package(url: "https://github.com/swift-libp2p/swift-cid.git", .upToNextMajor(from: "0.0.1")),
        ...
    ],
    ...
        .target(
            ...
            dependencies: [
                ...
                .product(name: "CID", package: "swift-cid"),
            ]),
    ...
)

Usage

Examples

Initialize a v0 CID from a v0 CID String

import CID

let mhStr = "QmdfTbBqBPQ7VNxZEYEj14VmRuZBkqFbiwReogJgS1zR1n"
let cid = try CID(mhStr)

cid.codec => .dag_pb
cid.code => 112
cid.version => .v0
cid.multibase => .base58btc
cid.toBaseEncodedString => "QmdfTbBqBPQ7VNxZEYEj14VmRuZBkqFbiwReogJgS1zR1n"
cid.multihash.asString(base: .base58btc) => "QmdfTbBqBPQ7VNxZEYEj14VmRuZBkqFbiwReogJgS1zR1n"

Initialize a v1 CID from a Multibase encoded v1 CID String

let peerIdStr = "k51qzi5uqu5dj16qyiq0tajolkojyl9qdkr254920wxv7ghtuwcz593tp69z9m" //LibP2P peerID
let cid = try CID(peerIdStr)

cid.codec => .libp2p_key
cid.code => 114
cid.version => .v1
cid.multibase => .base36
cid.toBaseEncodedString => "k51qzi5uqu5dj16qyiq0tajolkojyl9qdkr254920wxv7ghtuwcz593tp69z9m"

Initialize a v1 CID from parts

let mh = try Multihash(raw: "abc", hashedWith: .sha2_256)
let cid = try CID(version: .v1, codec: .dag_cbor, multihash: mh)

cid.codec => .dag_cbor
cid.code => 113
cid.version => .v1
cid.multibase => .base32
cid.toBaseEncodedString => "bafyreif2pall7dybz7vecqka3zo24irdwabwdi4wc55jznaq75q7eaavvu"

Check out CIDTests.swift for more examples on how you can instantiate and use CIDs

API


/// Initializers
/// Specify the version, codec and hash
CID.init(version:CIDVersion, codec:Codecs, hash:[UInt8])
CID.init(version:CIDVersion, codec:Codecs, hash:String)

/// From a Multihash
CID.init(v0WithMultihash multihash:Multihash)

/// From a CID compliant String / Data
CID.init(_ cid:String)


/// Properties
/// Integer based Enum, currently supports v0 or v1
CID.version:CIDVersion

/// The `Codec` used (ex: 'dag-pb')
CID.codec:Codecs

/// The Multibase used for encoding (ex: 'base32')
CID.multibase:BaseEncoding

/// The CIDs Multihash
CID.multihash:Multihash

/// Returns the Integer code of the Codec used by this CID (ex: dag-pb' -> 112)
CID.code:Int 

/// Returns the entirety of the CID as Bytes (Prefixs and Multihash Digest)
CID.rawBuffer:[UInt8] 
    
/// Returns the entirety of the CID as Data (Prefixs and Multihash Digest)
CID.rawData:Data
    
/// Returns the CIDs Prefix (includes everything but the multihash digest)
///
/// The CID prefix includes the following...
/// - [version] [codec] [hash-algo] [hash-length]
CID.prefix:[UInt8]


/// Convert between CID versions
CID.toV1()
CID.toV0()

More Info

What is it?

CID is a format for referencing content in distributed information systems, like IPFS. It leverages content addressing, cryptographic hashing, and self-describing formats. It is the core identifier used by IPFS and IPLD. It uses a multicodec to indicate its version, making it fully self describing.

You can read an in-depth discussion on why this format was needed in IPFS here: https://github.com/ipfs/specs/issues/130 (first post reproduced here)

A CID is a self-describing content-addressed identifier. It uses cryptographic hashes to achieve content addressing. It uses several multiformats to achieve flexible self-description, namely multihash for hashes, multicodec for data content types, and multibase to encode the CID itself into strings.

Concretely, it's a typed content address: a tuple of (content-type, content-address).

How does it work?

Current version: CIDv1

A CIDv1 has four parts:

<cidv1> ::= <mb><multicodec-cidv1><mc><mh>
# or, expanded:
<cidv1> ::= <multibase-prefix><multicodec-cidv1><multicodec-content-type><multihash-content-address>

Where

  • <multibase-prefix> is a multibase code (1 or 2 bytes), to ease encoding CIDs into various bases. NOTE: Binary (not text-based) protocols and formats may omit the multibase prefix when the encoding is unambiguous.
  • <multicodec-cidv1> is a multicodec representing the version of CID, here for upgradability purposes.
  • <multicodec-content-type> is a multicodec code representing the content type or format of the data being addressed.
  • <multihash-content-address> is a multihash value, representing the cryptographic hash of the content being addressed. Multihash enables CIDs to use many different cryptographic hash function, for upgradability and protocol agility purposes.

That's it!

Design Considerations

CIDs design takes into account many difficult tradeoffs encountered while building IPFS. These are mostly coming from the multiformats project.

  • Compactness: CIDs are binary in nature to ensure these are as compact as possible, as they're meant to be part of longer path identifiers or URIs.
  • Transport friendliness (or "copy-pastability"): CIDs are encoded with multibase to allow choosing the best base for transporting. For example, CIDs can be encoded into base58btc to yield shorter and easily-copy-pastable hashes.
  • Versatility: CIDs are meant to be able to represent values of any format with any cryptographic hash.
  • Avoid Lock-in: CIDs prevent lock-in to old, potentially-outdated decisions.
  • Upgradability: CIDs encode a version to ensure the CID format itself can evolve.

Human Readable CIDs

It is advantageous to have a human readable description of a CID, solely for the purposes of debugging and explanation. We can easily transform a CID to a "Human Readable CID" as follows:

<hr-cid> ::= <hr-mbc> "-" <hr-cid-mc> "-" <hr-mc> "-" <hr-mh>

Where each sub-component is represented with its own human-readable form:

  • <hr-mbc> is a human-readable multibase code (eg base58btc)
  • <hr-cid-mc> is the string cidv# (eg cidv1 or cidv2)
  • <hr-mc> is a human-readable multicodec code (eg cbor)
  • <hr-mh> is a human-readable multihash (eg sha2-256-256-abcdef0123456789...)

For example:

# example CID
zb2rhe5P4gXftAwvA4eXQ5HJwsER2owDyS9sKaQRRVQPn93bA
# corresponding human readable CID
base58btc - cidv1 - raw - sha2-256-256-6e6ff7950a36187a801613426e858dce686cd7d7e3c0fc42ee0330072d245c95

See: https://cid.ipfs.io/#zb2rhe5P4gXftAwvA4eXQ5HJwsER2owDyS9sKaQRRVQPn93bA

Versions

CIDv0

CIDv0 is a backwards-compatible version, where:

  • the multibase of the string representation is always base58btc and implicit (not written)
  • the multicodec is always dag-pb and implicit (not written)
  • the cid-version is always cidv0 and implicit (not written)
  • the multihash is written as is but is always a full (length 32) sha256 hash.
cidv0 ::= <multihash-content-address>

CIDv1

A CIDv1 has four parts:

<cidv1> ::= <mb><multicodec-cidv1><mc><mh>
# or, expanded:
<cidv1> ::= <multibase-prefix><multicodec-cidv1><multicodec-content-type><multihash-content-address>

Decoding Algorithm

To decode a CID, follow the following algorithm:

  1. If it's a string (ASCII/UTF-8):
  • If it is 46 characters long and starts with Qm..., it's a CIDv0. Decode it as base58btc and continue to step 2.
  • Otherwise, decode it according to the multibase spec and:
    • If the first decoded byte is 0x12, return an error. CIDv0 CIDs may not be multibase encoded and there will be no CIDv18 (0x12 = 18) to prevent ambiguity with decoded CIDv0s.
    • Otherwise, you now have a binary CID. Continue to step 2.
  1. Given a (binary) CID (cid):
    • If it's 34 bytes long with the leading bytes [0x12, 0x20, ...], it's a CIDv0.
      • The CID's multihash is cid.
      • The CID's multicodec is DagProtobuf
      • The CID's version is 0.
    • Otherwise, let N be the first varint in cid. This is the CID's version.
      • If N == 0x01 (CIDv1):
        • The CID's multicodec is the second varint in cid
        • The CID's multihash is the rest of the cid (after the second varint).
        • The CID's version is 1.
      • If N == 0x02 (CIDv2), or N == 0x03 (CIDv3), the CID version is reserved.
      • If N is equal to some other multicodec, the CID is malformed.

Contributing

Contributions are welcomed! This code is very much a proof of concept. I can guarantee you there's a better / safer way to accomplish the same results. Any suggestions, improvements, or even just critques, are welcome!

Let's make this code better together! 🤝

Credits

License

MIT © 2022 Breth Inc.

GitHub

link
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Last commit: 9 hours ago
jonrohan Something's broken? Yell at me @ptrpavlik. Praise and feedback (and money) is also welcome.

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