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hollyoops/RecoilSwift 0.3.0-beta
A New, Functional, Modern Reactive State Management Library for UIKit and SwiftUI (The iOS implementation of Recoil)
⭐️ 230
🕓 33 weeks ago
iOS macOS
.package(url: "https://github.com/hollyoops/RecoilSwift.git", from: "0.3.0-beta")

RecoilSwift

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:memo: 中文文档

RecoilSwift is a lightweight, composable state management framework designed for SwiftUI, compatible with UIKit. It can serve as a replacement for traditional MVVM or Redux-like architectural solutions (such as reswift, TCA).

Note: As of version 0.3, RecoilSwift has added support for UIKit. If you're interested in using RecoilSwift with UIKit, you can check out examples in the master branch. Please be aware, however, that we are still in the beta stage, and future APIs may be adjusted.

Recoil Overview

Recoil is an application state management solution proposed by Facebook. It simplifies Redux and can serve as a more elegant alternative.

To get a quicker understanding of Recoil, you can watch the video below or visit the official website.

Watch the video

Motivation

The current iOS architecture patterns (such as MVVM) have some issues when paired with declarative programming and have numerous pain points. Therefore, in declarative UI frameworks, many developers prefer Redux-like state management architectures (such as ReSwift, TCA). However, Redux solutions are complex, have a steep learning curve, and the excess boilerplate code can be cumbersome. Recoil offers an elegant solution with the following features:

  • Simple concepts, easy to get started
  • Atomized state, which can be combined
  • Reactive programming
  • Declarative programming, no boilerplate code, less coding

With Recoil, your code will become more concise, and different components can easily share state.

Basic Concepts

In Recoil, there are two basic concepts:

  1. Atoms: Atoms are the basic units of state, stateful objects that can be read and written to. An atom's state can be of any data type.
  2. Selectors: Selectors derive new states from one or more atoms. These derived states can be subscribed to for state updates, and they can also serve as inputs to other selectors.

Typically, we store source data in Atoms and business logic src="https://raw.github.com/hollyoops/RecoilSwift/master/electors`. And business units in selectors can be combined. As shown in the diagram below:

<img style="max-width:100%;" src="image.png" width="700" height="378"/>

In the above diagram, the yellow items are Atoms, the brown ones are Selectors, and the arrows represent the combination of states and dependency relationships.

  • An Atom cannot depend on other Atoms.
  • A Selector can combine other Selectors or Atoms and automatically establish dependencies. It is reactive, meaning any change in the upstream value will cause the downstream selector to automatically re-evaluate.

In summary:

  • Recoil's state is atomized, easily combinable and reusable.
  • Recoil's state is reactive, establishing dependencies automatically. Any change in the upstream value will cause the downstream selector to automatically recompute the logic, get the latest value, and refresh the UI.
  • Recoil's state is independent of UI components, making it easy to share states across components.

These three features make your code more concise while improving code reusability.

Installation

.Package(url: "https://github.com/hollyoops/RecoilSwift.git", from: "master")

RecoilSwift is available through CocoaPods. To install it, simply add the following line to your Podfile:

pod 'RecoilSwift'

API Documentation

:closed_book: API Documentation

Basic Usage

You can use RecoilSwift in both UIKit and SwiftUI.

(Using RecoilSwift in UIKit Please checkout More usage)

Using RecoilSwift in SwiftUI

In SwiftUI, RecoilSwift provides two types of APIs: PropertyWrapper based API and Hooks based API. The PropertyWrapper API is more in line with iOS norms and is more suitable for native developers. The Hooks API is closer to the official API and is more suitable for frontend developers.

The following is the use of PropertyWrapper based API. For the use of Hooks API, please see here.

RecoilRoot

First, please wrap your View with RecoilRoot.

struct YourApp: App {
    var body: some scene {
        WindowGroup {
            RecoilRoot {
                AppView()
            }
        }
    }
}

Creating and Using State

RecoilSwift provides two ways to define state: creating state using State Function and generating custom state by inheriting protocols.

  • Creating state using State Function:

Create state through atom and selector functions. The advantage of this method is that the API is closer to the official API, and in some cases, it's more concise. However, you need to follow the pattern below.

struct CartState {
    /// 1. Define a computed property
    static var allCartItem: Atom<[CartItem]> {
        /// 2. Create state with a function
        atom { [CartItem](https://raw.github.com/hollyoops/RecoilSwift/master/) }
    }

    /// UI display logic: If the number of items is less than 10, display the actual number, otherwise display 9+
    static var numberOfProductBadge: RecoilSwift.Selector<String?> {
        selector { accessor -> String? in
            /// Note: The simple `get` method below fetches data from other `atom/selector`
            /// It also establishes a relationship with `allCartItem`. When the allCartItem data changes,
            /// the current numberOfProductBadge will automatically recalculate. This allows different states to be combined and reused, which is very powerful!
            let items = try accessor.get(allCartItem)
            let count = items.reduce(into: 0) { result, item in
                result += item.count
            }
            return count < 10 ? "\(count)" : "9+"
        }
    }
}

Here, the data source is allCartItem, a synchronous Atom we created with the atom function, which represents the product list in the cart. numberOfProductBadge is a synchronous Selector that we created with the selector function, representing the total number of products in the cart. When the product list in the cart changes, this numberOfProductBadge will automatically recalculate and refresh the UI.

To use it in the UI:

struct YourView: View { 
    @RecoilScope var recoil

    var body: some View { 
     let badge = recoil.useValue(CartState.numberOfProductBadge)
      
      Text(badge)
    }
}

Creating Custom State:

If you don't want to use a function to create a state, you can define a class yourself and inherit one of the following protocols to generate a custom state:

  • SyncAtomNode for synchronous Atom protocol

  • AsyncAtomNode for asynchronous Atom protocol

  • SyncSelectorNode for synchronous Selector protocol

  • AsyncSelectorNode for asynchronous Selector protocol

struct AllCartItem: SyncAtomNode, Hashable {
  typealias T = [CartItem]
  func defaultValue() -> [CartItem] {
    []
  }
}

struct NumberOfProductBadge: SyncSelectorNode, Hashable {
  typealias T = String?
  func getValue(accessor: StateAccessor) -> String? {
      let items = try accessor.get(AllCartItem()) //creating an object
      let count = items.reduce(into: 0) { result, item in
          result += item.count
      }
      return count < 10 ? "\(count)" : "9+"
  }
}

To use it in the UI:

struct YourView: View { 
    @RecoilScope var recoil

    var body: some View { 
     let badge = recoil.useValue(NumberOfProductBadge())
      
      Text(badge)
    }
}

Creating and Using Parameterized State:

Sometimes your state might need to accept some external parameters. In this case, you would need to use parameterized state. Like defining state, RecoilSwift provides two ways to define parameterized state:

1. atomFamily & selectorFamily functions for creating parameterized state:

var remoteDataById: AsyncSelectorFamily<String, String> {
   selectorFamily { (id: String, get: Getter) async -> [String] in
      let posts = try await fetchAllData()
      return posts[id]
   }
}

struct YourView: View { 
  @RecoilScope var recoil
  var body: some View {
    let loadable = recoil.useLoadable(remoteDataById(id))
        
    return VStack {
        if loadable.isLoading {
            ProgressView()
        }
        
        if let err = loadable.errors.first {
            errorView(err)
        }

        // when data fulfill
        if let names = loadable.data {
           dataView(allBook: names, onRetry: loadable.load)
        }
    }
  }
}

2. Use of parameterized custom state:

We have defined a custom asynchronous Selector, which remotely retrieves the content of an article

struct RemoteData: AsyncSelectorNode, Hashable {
  typealias T = String
  let id: String

  func getValue(accessor: StateAccessor) async throws -> String {
      let posts = try await fetchAllData()
      return posts[id]
  }
}

Then use it like this:

var body: some View {
    let loadable = recoil.useLoadable(RemoteData(id))
    ...
}

State Debugging

Sometimes, we want to inspect the entire state graph of the application to ensure the relationships between states are correct. RecoilSwift provides a SnapshotView to help debug your state. You just need to enable shakeToDebug within RecoilRoot, and then shake your phone to automatically pop up the state graph.

  RecoilRoot(shakeToDebug: true) {
    content
  }

demo

In the above diagram, the yellow items are Atoms, the brown ones are Selectors, and the arrows represent the combination of states and dependency relationships.

More Usage

How to Test State in RecoilSwift


In RecoilSwift, you can utilize @RecoilTestScope to test your state.

final class AtomAccessTests: XCTestCase {
    /// 1. Initialize scope
    @RecoilTestScope var recoil
    override func setUp() {
        _recoil.purge()
    }
    
    func test_should_returnUpdatedValue_when_useRecoilState_given_stringAtom() {
        /// Subscribe to the state using `useRecoilXXX` API
        let value = recoil.useBinding(TestModule.stringAtom, default: "")
        XCTAssertEqual(value.wrappedValue, "rawValue")
        
        value.wrappedValue = "newValue"

        /// Use `useRecoilValue` API to subscribe and fetch the latest state value 
        let newValue = recoil.useValue(TestModule.stringAtom)
        XCTAssertEqual(newValue, "newValue")
    }
}

View Render Test:

Sometimes, you might want to conduct a more thorough end-to-end testing. For instance, you may want to simulate the rendering of a view. In this case, you can use ViewRenderHelper for an end-to-end testing from view to state. ViewRenderHelper is able to simulate multiple renderings of the view.

/// 1. Import the testing framework
import RecoilSwiftTestKit

final class AtomAccessWithViewRenderTests: XCTestCase {
    // ...
    func test_should_atom_value_when_useValue_given_stringAtom() async {
        /// The callback of `ViewRenderHelper` might be triggered multiple times,
        let view = ViewRenderHelper { recoil, sut in
            let value = recoil.useValue(TestModule.stringAtom)
            /// Once `expect` meets the expectation, the test will be considered successful, otherwise, the test will fail when time out
            sut.expect(value).equalTo("rawValue")
        }
        
        /// Simulate the view rendering
        await view.waitForRender()
    }
}
**Click to see how to test Hook API with `HookTester`**
final class AtomReadWriteTests: XCTestCase {
    @RecoilTestScope var recoil
    override func setUp() {
        _recoil.purge()
    }
    
    func test_should_return_rawValue_when_read_only_atom_given_stringAtom() {
        /// Note: You need to define HookTest and pass in Scope
        let tester = HookTester(scope: _recoil) {
            useRecoilValue(TestModule.stringAtom)
        }
        
        XCTAssertEqual(tester.value, "rawValue")
    }
}    

Stub/Mock State:

Many times our Selector relies on other states. For example, in the code below, state depends on an upstream state (state -> upstreamState):

struct MultipleTen {
    static var state: Selector<Int> {
        selector { context in
            try context.get(upstreamState) * 10
        }
    }
    
    static var upstreamState: Atom<Int> {
        atom {  0 }
    }
}

However, during unit testing, we often don't want to test this UpstreamState. We want to stub/mock it. We can use the following code to stub/make states in a RecoilTestScope:

 func test_should_return_upstream_asyncError_when_get_value_given_upstream_states_hasError() async throws {
        // stub  `upstreamState`  and make it return an error. You can also return other correct values with stub.
        //  _recoil.stubState(node: AsyncMultipleTen.upstreamState, value: 100)
        _recoil.stubState(node: AsyncMultipleTen.upstreamState, error: MyError.param)
        
        do {
            _ = try await accessor.get(AsyncMultipleTen.state)
            XCTFail("should throw error")
        } catch {
            XCTAssertEqual(error as? MyError, MyError.param)
        }
    }

UIKit Usage


You can also use RecoilSwift in UIKit, and even mix it with SwiftUI. All you need to do is make your UIViewController or UIView inherit from the RecoilUIScope protocol.

/// 1. Inherit from the RecoilUIScope protocol
extension BooksViewController: RecoilUIScope {

  /// 2. Implement the refresh method, which will be called when the subscribed state changes
  func refresh() {

    /// 3. Get and subscribe to the value of the state
    let value = recoil.useValue(MyState())

    // 4. Bind the value of the state to the UI
    valueLabel.text = value
    ...
  }
}
A complex example
extension BooksViewController: RecoilUIScope {
    func refresh() {
        let booksLoader = recoil.useLoadable(BookList.currentBooks)
        
        if let error = booksLoader.errors.first {
            loadingSpinner.stopAnimating()
            tableView.isHidden = true
            emptyDataLabel.isHidden = true
            errorLabel.text = error.localizedDescription
            errorLabel.isHidden = false
        } else if let books = booksLoader.data {
            loadingSpinner.stopAnimating()
            
            if books.isEmpty {
                tableView.isHidden = true
                emptyDataLabel.isHidden = false
            } else {
                tableView.isHidden = false
                emptyDataLabel.isHidden = true
                self.books = books
                tableView.reloadData()
            }
        } else {
            tableView.isHidden = true
            emptyDataLabel.isHidden = true
            loadingSpinner.startAnimating()
        }
    }
}

Please refer to the Example project in UIKit for more information.

Hooks API Usage


RecoilSwift provides a set of APIs based on Hooks API, which closely resemble the official API. The Hook API functions are prefixed with use, such as useRecoilXXX. This approach is particularly suitable for frontend developers and has no learning curve.

As it is based on the Hooks API, your View must adhere to the Hooks guidelines.

// 1. Inherit from the `HookView` protocol
struct YourView: HookView {
    // 2. Implement the `hookBody` property
    var hookBody: some View {
        // 3. Use the Hooks API to subscribe to states
        let names = useRecoilValue(namesState)
        let filteredNames = useRecoilValue(filteredNamesState)

        return VStack {
            Text("Original names: \(names.joined(separator: ","))")
            Text("Filtered names: \(filteredNames.wrappedValue.joined(separator: ","))")

            Button("Reset to original") {
                filteredNames.wrappedValue = names
            }
        }
    }
}

Please note that a View using the Hooks API should either inherit from the HookView protocol and implement the hookBody property, or wrap your Hooks API code with HookScope. You can utilize a series of Hook APIs such as useRecoilValue to subscribe to states and update them as needed.

More detail please checkout here

Demo

The following examples are very simple, but it is strongly recommended to view the corresponding code. Similar to Redux, Recoil is oriented towards state programming, making state sharing and reuse between pages very easy. And the state logic is all pure functions, testing is also very simple.

UIKIt demo

Resources:

Contributing

We welcome your contributions to RecoilSwift. You can help us improve RecoilSwift by submitting issues or pull requests.

Finally, if you like our project, don't forget to give us a star ⭐. It's the greatest encouragement for our work.

GitHub

link
Stars: 230
Last commit: 28 weeks ago
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