Swiftpack.co - Package - haozhexu/SwiftNotes

Hao's Swift Study Notes


This is the playground I've used during learning Swift, I mainly read The Swift Programming Language (Swift 4) from Apple, took notes and wrote code as I read.

Soon I realised the notes could be organized in a way so that a human readable markdown could be generated with a little tweaks, and I can even use Hugo to generate an HTML from it and host it somewhere.

As a result, this markdown was directly generated from the code and comments in the playground.

To make this possible, comments in the code have to follow certain convention, in order to have the right content format for markdown as well as keeping Playground able to compile. The convention looks like:

// This is a comment, will become text content of **markdown**.
// Below will become a fragment of code:

// ```swift
// let name = "Noname"
// ```

Simple way to generate markdown from above code:

sed 's/^\/\/ //g' SwiftBasicNotes.playground/Contents.swift > ~/Documents/SwiftBasicNotes.md
(strips leading double slashes followed by a space from each line)

(PS: the details of how to generate markdown from the source code is written in the markdown itself, embedded as comments in the source code, this recursion feels weird, doesn't it? It feels like a hungry snake swallows down itself from its own tail.)

"Hello, world!" Printing

The classic "Hello, world!" print out illustrates a few points of the language, for example, no semicolon needed to end a line, how a function/method call looks like, how string literal is represented.

print("Science may someday discover what faith has always known.")

Table of Contents

Constants and Variables


Something mysterious is formed, born in the silent void. waiting alone and unmoving, it is at once still and yet in constant motion. It is the source of all programs. I do not know its name, so I will call it the Tao of Programming. - The Tao of Programming


Cloudy; variable winds, with local showers; cooler; snow. - Halcyon Jones

let <constant name>: <type> = <expression>
var <variable name>: <type> = <expression>
  • Make sure constant or variable has value set before the first time its value is read
  • if the value of a variable isn't modified throughout its lifecycle, or not intended to be modified, define it as a constant instead, this makes sure any unexpected modification could be captured by compiler
let catsMaximumNumberOfLives = 9 // constant
var catsCurrentDeathCount = 0 // variable
catsCurrentDeathCount = 9
// catsMaximumNumberOfLives = 10 would generate a compiler error

// multiple constants or variables on a single line:
var variable1 = 0.0, variable2 = 1.2, variable3 = 5.6


Types and Operations

Type Annotations

var welcomeMessage: String
var red, green, blue: Double
var someNumber: Int

Semicolon (;) isn't required after each statement although you can; Required for separating statements on the same line:

let sameLineGuru = "Same Line"; print("This is Mr. \(sameLineGuru)")

string interpolation was used above to include the name of a constant or variable as a placeholder in a longer string, and to prompt Swift to replace it with the current value of that constant or variable.


let integer8: Int8 // signed 8-bit integer, UInt8 for unsigned
let integer16: Int16 // signed 16-bit integer, UInt16 for unsigned
let integer32: Int32 // signed 32-bit integer, UInt32 for unsigned
let integer64: Int64 // signed 64-bit integer, UInt64 for unsigned

Usually Int is used, it's the same size as Int32 on 32-bit platform and same size as Int64 on 64-bit platform

Integer Bounds

Unsigned X-bit integer range from 0 to (2^X)-1 inclusive

Signed X-bit integer range from -(2^(X-1)) to (2^(X-1))-1 inclusive

print("maximum value of UInt16 is \(UInt16.max) which is (2^16)-1 = \(Int(pow(2.0, 16.0) - 1))")
print("minimum value of Int8 is \(Int8.min) which is -(2^(8-1)) = \(-Int(pow(2.0, 8.0 - 1.0)))")
print("maximum value of Int32 is \(Int32.max) which is (2^(32-1))-1 = \(Int(pow(2.0, 32.0 - 1.0)) - 1)")

Floating Points

  • Double: a 64-bit floating-point number, usually preferred
  • Float: a 32-bit floating-point number

Type Safe and Type Inferences

let youth = 3
// inferred to be type `Int`

let experienceOfYouth = 0.14
// inferred to be type `Double`

let pi = 3 + 0.1415926
// Inferred to be type `Double`

// you can't get pi by adding:
// let youthAndExperienceOfYouth = youth + experienceOfYouth
// error: binary operator '+' cannot be applied to operands of type 'Int' and 'Double'
// (you can't have youth and experience of youth at the same time)

Type Conversion

let alsoPi = Double(youth) + experienceOfYouth
let werePi = Int(alsoPi) // lost precision

Type Alias

typealias Mood = UInt8
print("mood: happy = \(Mood.max) sad = \(Mood.min)")


let fake = false
let truth = true

Assignment operator

var b = 10
var a = 5
a = b // a is now equal to 10
let (x, y) = (1, 2) // x is 1 and y is 2

Arithmetic operator

1 + 2       // addition (+)
5 - 3       // subtraction (-)
2 * 3       // multiplication (*)
10.0 / 2.5  // division (/)
9 % 4       // remainder (%)
-5          // unary minus
+6          // unary plus

Compound assignemnt operators

a = 1
a += 2
a -= 5
a *= 3
a /= 2

Comparison Operators

1 == 1  // equal to
2 != 1  // not equal to
2 > 1   // greater than
1 < 2   // less than
1 >= 1  // greater than or equal to
2 <= 1  // less than or equal to

You can compare two tuples if they have the same type and the same number of values, tuples are compared from left to right, and you can compare "Apple" with "Orange"

(1, "zebra") < (2, "apple")
// 1 is less than 2 and "zebra" and "apple" are not compared

(3, "apple") < (3, "orange")
// 3 is equal to 3 and "apple" is less than "orange"

(4, "dog") == (4, "dog")
// all equal


let someCoordinates: (Int, Int) = (3, 6)
let someOtherCoordinates = (21, 97)
// type inference without type `(Int, Int)`

// access value by index:
print("some coordinate is (\(someCoordinates.0), \(someCoordinates.1))");

// access value by name:
let someCoordinatesNamed = (x: 71, y: 89)
print("some coordinate has x = \(someCoordinatesNamed.x) and y = \(someCoordinatesNamed.y)")

Range operators

closed range operator: (a...b) defines a range from a to b inclusive, a must not be greater than b.

half-open range operator: (a..<b) defines a range from a up to, but not include b.

one-sided range: a range that continue as far as possible, e.g. array[3...] from 3 to the end, array[...9] from beginning up to 9

let someArray = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]


  • Unary operators operate on a single target
    • unary prefix operators appear immediately before their targets (such as !b)
    • unary postfix operators appear immediately after their targets (such as c!)
  • Binary operators operate on two targets
    • e.g. 2 + 3
    • are infix because they appear between their two targets
  • Ternary operators operate on three targets
    • only ternary operator: a ? b : c


Control Flow

Comparison Operators let you compare values and get an answer of either true or false

if statement

if <condition> {
if <condition1> {
} else if <condition2> {
} else {
if <condition> {
} else {
let isOnePlusOneEqualThree = (1 + 1) == 3
false, `==` equality comparison

let isFake = isOnePlusOneEqualThree == false

if isFake == true {
    print("Fake, is the new truth")
let nameOfAnimal = "Deer"
if nameOfAnimal == "Horse" {
} else {
    print("A place where we don't have to lie.")

Short Circuiting

if "country" > "people" && 1 + 1 == 2 {
    // here it won't check if 1 + 1 equals to 2
    // because the first condition is already wrong
    print("We can sacrifice the people for the benefit of the country.")
} else {
    print("Fighting for the people is fighting for the country.")
// Result: Fighting for the people is fighting for the country.
var someoneIsDrunk = true
var divorceAgreementReadyToSign = true

if someoneIsDrunk || divorceAgreementReadyToSign == false {
    // here it doesn't matter if divorce agreement is ready to sign or not
    // because the person is already drunk
    // ie. first condition true
    print("Let's decide later.")

Ternary Conditional Operator

let weightOfMountain = 9
let weightOfFeather = 1
let onesLife = 0
let anotherOnesLife = 10

var lifeDescription = onesLife < weightOfFeather ? "lighter than a feather" : "more than a feather"
print("Someone's life is \(lifeDescription).")
// Someone's life is lighter than a feather.

lifeDescription = anotherOnesLife > weightOfMountain ? "heavier than a mountain" : "less than a mountain"
print("Someone's life is \(lifeDescription).")
// Someone's life is heavier than a mountain.


while Loop

while <CONDITION> {
let weekendStarts = 6
var today = 1
while today < weekendStarts {
    print("Day \(today): start the day with a smile, after that you can be your nasty old self again.")
    today += 1
print("Day \(today): weekend starts")
repeat {
} while <CONDITION>
let fullCupOfWater = 5
var waterInCup = fullCupOfWater

repeat {
    if (waterInCup > 0) {
        print("Like this cup, you are full of opinions and speculations.\nTo see the light of wisdom, you first must empty your cup before adding more.")
        waterInCup -= 1
} while waterInCup > 0

for Loop

let totalVersions = 5
for currentVersion in 1...totalVersions {
    print("Current version: \(currentVersion)")


let versionNumberOfBadLuck = 4
for currentVersion in 1...totalVersions where currentVersion != versionNumberOfBadLuck {
    print("Current version: \(currentVersion)")

continue and Labeld Statements

for currentVersion in 1...totalVersions {
    if currentVersion == versionNumberOfBadLuck {
        print("We skip version \(currentVersion) to avoid bad luck.")
        continue // start next loop and ignore the remaining loop code
    print("Current version: \(currentVersion)")


Dating with different lovers:

  • avoid dating if wife might know
  • we'll be in big trouble if the lover is also wife's friend and wife might know the dating
let numberOfSecretLovers = 3
let plannedDatesPerLover = 5
let loverThatIsAlsoWifesFriend = 2
let dateThatWifeMightKnow = 4

lover: for currentLover in 1...numberOfSecretLovers {
    date: for currentDate in 1...plannedDatesPerLover {
        print("lover \(currentLover) date \(currentDate)")
        if currentLover == loverThatIsAlsoWifesFriend && currentDate == dateThatWifeMightKnow {
            print("We are in trouble now.")
            break lover
        } else if currentDate == dateThatWifeMightKnow {
            print("Do not date if wife might know.")
            continue date
        print("Let's go dating.")


switch <control expression> {
case <pattern 1>:
case <pattern 2> where <condition>:
case <pattern 3> where <condition>,
     <pattern 4> where <condition>:
let occupied = true, unoccupied = false
var gender = "boy" // try changing it to "girl"
var toiletOccupancy = (male: occupied, female: unoccupied)

switch toiletOccupancy {
case let (male, female) where male != female:
    print("At least one toilet is empty")
fallthrough // continue the statements below
case (male: true, _) where gender == "boy":
    // male toilet is empty
    // and boys do not care about female toilet
    print("boy can use toilet now")
case (_, female: true) where gender == "girl":
    // female toilet is empty
    // and girls do not care about male toilet
    print("girl can use toilet now")
case (male: true, female: false) where gender == "girl":
    print("girl has to use boy's toilet if urgent")
case (male: false, female: true) where gender == "boy":
    print("boy has to use girl's toilet if urgent")
    // **exhaustive**: every possible value of the control expression’s type
    // must match the value of at least one pattern of a case
    // `default case` can be used to satisfy this if it's not feasible.
var schoolYear = 3 // try changing it to something within 1...12
switch schoolYear {
case 1...3:
    print("You don't know you don't know.")
case 4...6:
    print("You know you don't know.")
case 7...9:
    print("You don't know you know.")
case 10...12:
    print("You know you know.")
    // exhaustive: “every possible value of the control expression’s type
    // must match the value of at least one pattern of a case”
    // `default case` can be used to satisfy this if it's not feasible.



func <function name>(<parameters>) -> <return type> {

If the function has a return type of Void (ie. no return value):

func <function name>(<parameters>) {

Forms of a parameter:

<parameter name>: <parameter type>
<argument label> <parameter name>: <parameter type>
_ <parameter name>: <parameter type>
func add(a: Int, b: Int) -> Int {
    return x + y

func sayHi(to person: String) {
    print("Hi, \(person)!")

sayHi(to: "future")

func sayHi(_ person: String) {
    print("Hi, \(person)!")


Change a parameter directly

Terminology: copy-in copy-out, call by value result

let vampiresAppetitePerPerson = 0.4
func payTax(for income: inout Double) {
    income *= (1.0 - vampiresAppetitePerPerson)

var income = 100.00
payTax(for: &income)

print("After tax, income becomes \(income)")
// Prints "After tax, income becomes 60.0"

Functions as variables

A function that takes a parameter, and returns another function that uses the parameter:


Define a generic function that returns a function mimicing money deduction behaviour with specified deduction rate

func createMoneyDeductor(with percentage: Double) -> (Double) -> Double {
    // define and return another function:
    func bloodSuckingVampire(bloodQuantity: Double) -> Double {
        return bloodQuantity * (1 - percentage)
    return bloodSuckingVampire

let taxOffice = createMoneyDeductor(with: 0.3)
let laywer = createMoneyDeductor(with: 0.1)
let dentist = createMoneyDeductor(with: 0.1)

income = 10_000.00
print("Start with income \(income)")
income = taxOffice(income)
income = laywer(income)
income = dentist(income)
print("After tax, laywer and dentist, now it becomes \(income)")

Function that Never Returns

func oneInfiniteLoop() -> Never {
    while true {
        print("Falling apple on your head.")



A variable holding either some value, or nothing.

var errorCode: Int?
errorCode = 404
errorCode = nil

force unwrap

errorCode = 500
print("Error code is \(errorCode!)")

optional binding

if let errorCode = errorCode {
    print("Error code is \(errorCode)")
} else {
    print("No error.")


Collection Types

[Element] // short form


var someNumbers = [Int]()

someNumbers = [] // type has been provided as `Int`

Array with default value

var fiveNumbers = Array(repeating: 1.2, count: 3)

Adding two array together

let threePowers = ["Executive", "Legislative", "Judicial"]
let twoPowers = ["Supervision Audit", "Examination"]
let fivePowers = threePowers + twoPowers

Accessing and modifying array

var shoppingList = ["Wine", "Coffee", "Cigarette"]
print("Shopping list has \(shoppingList.count) items")

if shoppingList.isEmpty {
    print("Shopping list is empty")
} else {
    print("Shopping list isn't empty")

shoppingList += ["Meat", "Tea"]

var firstItem = shoppingList[0]

shoppingList[3] = "Condom"
shoppingList[3...4] = ["Energy Drink"]
shoppingList: ["Wine", "Coffee", "Cigarette", "Energy Drink", "Tea"]

shoppingList.insert("Honey", at: 0)
let honey = shoppingList.remove(at: 0)

Iterating Over an Array

for item in shoppingList {
    print("Shopping list item: \(item)")

for (index, item) in shoppingList.enumerated() {
    print("Shopping list item \(index): \(item)")



Hash Value for Set Types

Set can only contain hashable values if a == b, then a.hashValue == b.hashValue

Creating Sets

var letters = Set<Character>()
letters = []
var someColors: Set<String> = ["Blue", "White", "Red"]
var someOtherColors: Set = ["Sunset", "Autumn", "Zen"]



print("Other colors have \(someOtherColors.count) colors")

Check Empty

if someOtherColors.isEmpty {
    print("No color, is the real color.")
} else {
    print("There are a few colors in it.")

Insert and Remove

if let removedColor = someColors.remove("Yellow") {
    print("\(removedColor) removed from someColors")
} else {
    print("someColors does not have Yellow in it")

Union and Intersection

let openDays: Set = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
let closedDays: Set = [6, 7]



Creating a Dictionary

// creating empty dictionary:
var meaningsOfAges = [String: String]()
meaningsOfAges["eighteen"] = "By which the acquired collection of prejudices become common sense"
// creating with dictionary literal:
var meaningOfWords = ["agreement": "when people are tired of thinking"]
// `String` type inferred for `var meaningOfWords: [String: String]`

Dictionary operations

if meaningsOfAges.isEmpty == false {
    print("At least one age has some meaning")

meaningsOfAges["one"] = "One year closer to death"

if let meaningOf18 = meaningsOfAges["eighteen"] {
    print("The meaning of age 18:\n\(meaningOf18)")

Iterating Over a Dictionary

for (age, meaning) in meaningsOfAges {
    print("Meaning of \(age): \(meaning)")



Function without name:

{ (<parameters>) -> <return type> in
let cups = ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E"]
let biggestCup = cups.sorted { (c1: String, c2: String) -> Bool in
    c1 > c2
let smallestCup = cups.sorted { (c1: String, c2: String) -> Bool in
    c1 < c2
print("Biggest cup is \(biggestCup), most environemtnal friendly cup is \(smallestCup)")

Inferring type from context

without parameter type:

cups.sorted { (c1, c2) -> Bool in
    c1 > c2

without return type:

cups.sorted { (c1, c2) in c1 > c2 }

shorthand argument names:

cups.sorted { $0 > $1 }

operator methods:

cups.sorted(by: >)
  • A closure can capture constants and variables from the surrounding context in which it is defined.
  • Closures are reference types

Escaping closures

A closure is said to escape a function when the closure is passed as an argument to the function, but is called after the function returns.

var executionGround: [() -> Void] = []

func executionSuspended(prisonerExecution: @escaping () -> Void) {

func executionImmediate(prisonerExecution: () -> Void) {
    prisonerExecution() // execute immediately

executionSuspended {
    print("Summer is here, will autumn be far away?")

executionImmediate {
    print("Don't laugh if I lay drunken on the battleground, how many warriors ever came back safe and sound?")
    // only this is executed


var toBeInDinnerPlate = ["Chicken", "Duck", "Fish", "Pork"]
print(toBeInDinnerPlate.count) // Prints "4"

let dinnerProvider = { toBeInDinnerPlate.remove(at: 0) }
print(toBeInDinnerPlate.count) // Prints "4"

print("Now serving \(dinnerProvider())!")
// Prints "Now serving Chicken!"
print(toBeInDinnerPlate.count) // Prints "3"

// parameter: () -> String
// argument is auto converted to a closure
func serve(dinner provider: @autoclosure () -> String) {
    print("Now serving \(provider())!")

// now can pass a String
serve(dinner: "Vegetable")
// "Hi" will be converted to a closure that returns this string
// which is only evaluated when being called


Strings and Characters

  • string literals can be single or multi line
  • backslash () can be used to make the string easier to read but won't have line break in the final string
  • blank line as the first and/or last line in multiline string as line feed
  • indentation is only considered after the indentation of triple quotation marks
  • special characters are espaced with backslash
  • unicode can be written with \u{}
  • strings are value types
let quotationSingleLine = "There be light."
let quotationMultiLine = """

And God said, \
Let there be light:
and there was light.


final string:

And God said, Let there be light:
and there was light.

Create emtpy string

var emptyString = ""
var anotherEmptyString = String()
if emptyString.isEmpty {
    print("Unfortunately the emptiness of a string can't be derived from its name.")

You can do this:

emptyString += "no longer empty"

Strings are sequence of characters

for character in "Dog🐶Inside!" {

let nethackCharacters: [Character] = ["T", "h", "e", " ", "n", "e", "w", "t", " ", "b", "i", "t", "e", "s"]
var nethackString = String(nethackCharacters)
// Prints "The newt bites"

nethackString += "!"


Unicode is an international standard for encoding text in different languages, it covers much more than the original ASCII character set, however the underlying representation are still integers. Integers within certain ranges (U+0000 to U+D7FF inclusive, U+E000 to U+10FFFF inclusive) are called Unicode Scalars.

Extended grapheme clusters

Every instance of Swift’s Character type represents a single extended grapheme cluster. An extended grapheme cluster is a sequence of one or more Unicode scalars that (when combined) produce a single human-readable character.

let eAcute: Character = "\u{E9}"
// é

let combinedEAcute: Character = "\u{65}\u{301}"
// e followed by  ́ (the thing above e)

Accessing and Modifying a String

Because a character in Unicode may consist of more than one number, anything related to indices, inculding counting the number of characters in a string, becomes tricky. A swift string can't be indexed by integer values, the type of index is String.Index

var word = "cafe"
word.count // 4
word += "\u{301}"
word.count // 4

// A

print(science[science.index(before: science.endIndex)])
// Z

print(science[science.index(after: science.startIndex)])
// B

let index7 = science.index(science.startIndex, offsetBy: 7)
// H
var indexS: String.Index? = science.index(of: "S")
var indexO: String.Index? = science.index(of: "O")
var indexU: String.Index? = science.index(of: "U")
var indexL: String.Index? = science.index(of: "L")

if (indexS == nil && indexO == nil && indexU == nil && indexL == nil) {
    print("science has no SOUL")


var sentence = "you understand"
sentence.insert(contentsOf: "could ", at: sentence.startIndex)
sentence.insert(contentsOf: "?", at: sentence.endIndex)
// Print: "could you understand?"


let range1 = sentence.range(of: "oul")!
sentence.replaceSubrange(range1, with: "ulo")
let range2 = sentence.range(of: "nderstan")!
sentence.replaceSubrange(range2, with: "redntsna")
// Prints: "culod you uredntsnad?"


let englishForDummy = "therapist"
let indexOfR = englishForDummy.index(of: "r")!
let firstWord = englishForDummy[..<indexOfR]
let lastWord = englishForDummy[indexOfR...]
print("Have you ever realised the word \"\(englishForDummy)\" is made up by \"\(String(firstWord))\" and \"\(String(lastWord))\"?")
// Prints: "Have you ever realised the word "therapist" is made up by "the" and "rapist"?



the average pencil is seven inches long, with just a half-inch eraser-in case you thought optimism was dead. -- Robert Brault

Some history regarding switch-case - in case you need to show off your knowledge to friends: // In his 1952 text Introduction to Metamathematics, Stephen Kleene formally proved that the CASE function (the IF-THEN-ELSE function being its simplest form) is a primitive recursive function. //


enum <enumeration name> {
    <enumeration definitions>

each case can be a single line:

enum PlanetVertical {
    case mercury
    case venus
    case earth
    case mars
    case jupiter
    case saturn
    case uranus
    case neptune

or multiple cases can appear on a single line:

enum PlanetHorizontal {
    case mercury, venus, earth, mars, jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune

enumeration type can be inferred

enum Direction {
    case north
    case west
    case south
    case east

var lostDirection: Direction
var nextDirection = Direction.east

lostDirection = .north
nextDirection = .west

Switch matching

switch lostDirection {
case .north, .west, .south:
    print("Lost in the wild")
case .east:
    print("You need a pilot")

Remember switch must be exhaustive

switch nextDirection {
case .east:
    print("Be prepared.")
    print("Why not heading east?")

Associated Values


Define an enumeration for daily attendence, if unattended, give and execuse as well as a real reason, define three functions, evaluate the execuse and reason for unattendence, from perspectives of teacher, manager and self

enum DailyAttendence {
    case attended
    case unattended(execuse: String, realReason: String)

func teacherEvaluate(_ attendence: DailyAttendence) {
    switch attendence {
    case .attended:
        print("Keep up")
    case .unattended(_, let realReason):
        print("I need to talk to your parents regarding \(realReason)")

func managerEvaluate(_ attendence: DailyAttendence) {
    switch attendence {
    case .attended:
        print("Keep up")
    case .unattended(let execuse, _):
        print("I'm fine with \(execuse)")

func selfEvaluate(_ attendence: DailyAttendence) {
    switch attendence {
    case .attended:
        print("A boring day")
    case let .unattended(execuse, realReason):
        print("I have \"\(execuse)\" as execuse for the real reason of \"\(realReason)\"")

let jackyAttendence: DailyAttendence = DailyAttendence.unattended(execuse: "alarm clock stopped working", realReason: "late sleep watching TV")
// I need to talk to your parents regarding late sleep watching TV

let goodsonAttendence: DailyAttendence = DailyAttendence.attended
// keep up

let mrUnsatisiable: DailyAttendence = DailyAttendence.unattended(execuse: "sick", realReason: "job interview")
// I'm fine with sick

// I have "sick" as execuse for the real reason of "job interview"

Raw Values


enum Month : Int {
    case january = 1
    case feburary // 2
    case march // 3
    case april // 4
    case may // 5
    case june // 6
    case july // 7
    case august // 8
    case september // 9
    case october // 10
    case november // 11
    case december // 12

print("September has a value of \(Month.september.rawValue)")
// Print "September has a value of 9"
enum SomeNames : String {
    case michael
    case tom
    case jack

print("case tom has raw value of \(SomeNames.tom.rawValue)")
// Print "case tom has raw value of tom"

Initializing from raw value

var monthNumber = 7
if let month = Month(rawValue: monthNumber) {
    switch month {
    case .july:
        print("Month of examination, graduation and boy/girl-friend breaking up.")
        print("Some other month")
} else {
    print("Cannot recognize month number")

Recursive enumerations

A recursive enumeration is an enumeration that has another instance of the enumeration as the associated value for one or more of the enumeration cases

enum Trap {
    case rightWayOut
    indirect case wayOut(Trap)

let eternity = Trap.wayOut(Trap.rightWayOut)
let love = Trap.wayOut(eternity)

func escape(from trap: Trap) {
    switch trap {
    case .rightWayOut:
        print("Found the right way out")
    case .wayOut(let anotherTrap):
        print("Fall into another trap")
        escape(from: anotherTrap)

escape(from: love)
// Fall into another trap
// Fall into another trap
// Found the right way out

Different Uses of Enum

  • enum can have methods inside it, the methods are for each case (so if a method performs case-dependent action, it need to consider all cases)
  • enum can be a good way of representing hierarchy, structure and even certain kinds of flow


An enum representing seasons with method that evolves to next season

enum Season: String, CustomStringConvertible {

    case spring
    case summer
    case autumn
    case winter

    mutating func next() {
        switch self {
        case .spring:
            self = .summer
        case .summer:
            self = .autumn
        case .autumn:
            self = .winter
        case .winter:
            self = .spring
    var description: String {
        return "It's \(self.rawValue) now."

var currentSeason = Season.spring

Prints: It's spring now. It's autumn now.


An 'enum' representing stages of love and with ability to evolve

enum StageOfLove: String {
    case acquaint
    case inLove
    case marriage
    case accustomed
    case bored
    case stranger
    case separate
    case lost

extension StageOfLove {
    func nextStageWithTime() -> StageOfLove {
        guard self != .lost else {
            preconditionFailure("No time left")
        switch self {
        case .acquaint:
            return .inLove
        case .inLove:
            return .marriage
        case .marriage:
            return .accustomed
        case .accustomed:
            return .bored
        case .bored:
            return .stranger
        case .stranger:
            return .separate
        case .separate:
            return .lost
    func memoryRecall() -> StageOfLove {
        guard self == .separate else {
            preconditionFailure("You never know how deep you are involved unless you lost it.")
        return .lost

extension StageOfLove: CustomStringConvertible {
    var description: String {
        switch self {
        case .acquaint, .inLove, .marriage, .accustomed:
            return "You are the one"
        case .bored, .stranger, .separate:
            return "Memory fades as time goes by, we got seperated as we were pacing."
        case .lost:
            return "The moment I turned round, I found that you were not there. Suddenly, I was flustered."

var currentStage = StageOfLove.acquaint
var nextStage = currentStage.nextStageWithTime()
print("\(currentStage.rawValue) becomes \(nextStage.rawValue)")

currentStage = nextStage
nextStage = currentStage.nextStageWithTime()

print("\(currentStage.rawValue) becomes \(nextStage.rawValue)")

currentStage = nextStage
nextStage = currentStage.nextStageWithTime()

print("\(currentStage.rawValue) becomes \(nextStage.rawValue)")

currentStage = nextStage
nextStage = currentStage.nextStageWithTime()

print("\(currentStage.rawValue) becomes \(nextStage.rawValue)")

currentStage = nextStage
nextStage = currentStage.nextStageWithTime()

print("\(currentStage.rawValue) becomes \(nextStage.rawValue)")

currentStage = nextStage
nextStage = currentStage.nextStageWithTime()

print("\(currentStage.rawValue) becomes \(nextStage.rawValue)")

currentStage = nextStage
nextStage = currentStage.nextStageWithTime()


prints: // acquaint becomes inLove inLove becomes marriage marriage becomes accustomed accustomed becomes bored bored becomes stranger stranger becomes separate

Memory fades as time goes by, we got seperated as we were pacing. The moment I turned round, I found that you were not there. Suddenly, I was flustered.

Enum with Generic parameters

Enum can be defined with generic parameters for associated values

Example Define an enum representing success and error response with generic response and error type

enum Response<SuccessType, ErrorType> {
    case success(SuccessType)
    case failure(ErrorType)

let response1 = Response<String, Int>.success("valid response")
let response2 = Response<String, Int>.failure(404)

func print(response: Response<String, Int>) {
    switch response {
    case .success(let message):
        print("success message: \(message)")
    case .failure(let errorCode):
        print("error code: \(errorCode)")



Classes and Structures

Declare a class:

class Love { // class name
    // <statements>
    // }

Class/Type constant:

    // by default, love isn't persistent
    static let defaultPersistency = false

Stored properties

var name: String?
let thorny = true // constant
// inferred boolean variable
var isPersistent = defaultPersistency
var looksPretty: Bool // variable

Computed property

var tastesGood: Bool {
// computed property
// must be variable
    return !looksPretty

Lazy property

lazy var complexity: Int = { [unowned self] in
    if let name = self.name {
        return name.lengthOfBytes(using: .utf8)
    } else {
        return 123


// non-optional properties must be
// initialized before use
init(looksPretty: Bool, name: String? = nil) {
    self.looksPretty = looksPretty
    self.name = name

Instance method

func printDescription() {
    Love.printNotes(about: self)

Class/Type method

// `final` indicates cannot be overwritten
final func displayName() -> String {
    return self.name ?? self.defaultName()

func defaultName() -> String {
    return "love"

// called when no reference to the instance
// ie. reference counter reaches 0
deinit {
    print("\(self.displayName()) disappeared in a puff of logic")

static func printNotes(about love: Love) {
    let displayName = love.displayName()
    print("Notes about \(love.defaultName()):")

    if let name = love.name {
        print("\(love.defaultName()) has a name of \"\(name)\"")
    } else {
        print("\(love.defaultName()) has noname")

    if love.thorny {
        print("\(displayName) is thorny")

    if love.isPersistent {
        print("\(displayName) can be persistent")
    } else {
        print("\(displayName) \(Love.defaultPersistency ? "lasts forever" : "doesn't last long") by default")

    let look = love.looksPretty ? "looks pretty" : "looks ugly"
    let taste = love.tastesGood ? "tastes good" : "tastes bad"

    if love.looksPretty == love.tastesGood {
        print("\(displayName) \(look) and \(taste)")
    } else {
        print("\(displayName) \(look) but \(taste)")

make some loves:

let someLove = Love(looksPretty: false)
let someHate = Love(looksPretty: true, name: "Hate")
someHate.isPersistent = true

someLove prints

Notes about love:
love has noname
love is thorny
love doesn't last long by default
love looks ugly but tastes good

hate prints

Notes about Hate:
love has a name of "Hate"
Hate is thorny
Hate can be persistent
Hate looks pretty but tastes bad
struct Address {
    // type constant
    static let format = "British"
    var streetNumber: String
    var streetName: String
    var suburb: String
    var state: String
    var postcode: String
    var country: String
    var fullAddress: String {
        return "\(streetNumber) \(streetName), \(suburb), \(state) \(postcode), \(country)"
print("Using \(Address.format) format")
// default struct-wise initializer
let address = Address(streetNumber: "123", streetName: "Straight Street", suburb: "Curveless", state: "XYZ", postcode: "1234", country: "Unobtainable")


// hate is a kind of love
class Hate: Love {
    init() {
        super.init(looksPretty: false, name: "exclusive love")
        self.isPersistent = true
    // `override` keyword used here
    override func defaultName() -> String {
        return "hate"

let moreHate = Hate()

moreHate prints:

Notes about hate:
hate has a name of "exclusive love"
exclusive love is thorny
exclusive love can be persistent
exclusive love looks ugly but tastes good

required and convenience initializers

  • required initializer makes sure subclass still implements the initializer
    • required init(name: String)
  • convenience initializer is forced to call a non-convenience initializer directly or indirectly
    • convenience init()
  • non-convenience initializer is called designated initializer
  • a designated initializer must call a designated initializer from its immediate superclass.
  • a convenience initializer must call another initializer from the same class.
  • a convenience initializer must ultimately call a designated initializer.

Identify operators

Check whether two constants or variables refer to the same single instance:

  • Identical to (===)
  • Not identical to (!==)
let fakeLove = someLove
print("someLove is fakeLove? \(someLove === fakeLove)")


var shortTermLove: Love? = Love(looksPretty: true)
shortTermLove = nil


love disappears in a puff of logic

class vs struct


  • reference type, object with identity, e.g. Student
  • slower on heap
  • updated with logic
  • internals can remain mutable even when declared with let


  • value type, e.g. Address
  • faster on stack
  • simple data store
  • immutable when declared with let



Define a protocol

protocol Rescuable {
    // method:
    func rescue()
    // property:
    var distanceToGod: UInt { get set }
    var hasBeenSaved: Bool { get }
    // initializer
    init?(initialDistanceToGod: UInt)

Implementing a protocol

class Person: Rescuable {
    var distanceToGod: UInt
    // satisfied by a `required` initializer in non-final class
    required init?(initialDistanceToGod: UInt) {
        if initialDistanceToGod == 0 {
            print("Already rescued, not a human anymore")
            return nil
        self.distanceToGod = initialDistanceToGod
    func rescue() {
        if distanceToGod > 0 {
            distanceToGod -= 1
    var hasBeenSaved: Bool {
        return distanceToGod == 0

Swift doesn't care how you implement a protocol, as long as you implemnet it. Choices for implementing a get property in protocol:

  • a constant stored property
  • a variable stored property
  • a read-only computed property
  • a read-write computed property

Implementing multiple protocols

We define an Evil protocol:

protocol Evil {
    func fulfilDesire()

Adopt protocol using extension

Make Person also implements Evil

extension Person: Evil {
    func fulfilDesire() {
        self.distanceToGod += 1
func commentary(of thing: Rescuable & Evil) {
    print("Something that is evil but rescuable")
    if thing.hasBeenSaved {
        print("God saved you")
    } else {
        print("distance to God: \(thing.distanceToGod)")
        print("desire makes the distance to God becomes \(thing.distanceToGod)")
        print("after rescue, distance to God becomes \(thing.distanceToGod)")

let person = Person(initialDistanceToGod: 20)!
commentary(of: person)

let distance = person.distanceToGod
for _ in 1...distance {

commentary(of: person)
// Print: "God saved you"



It's like a super-type of different types.

func swapValues<T>(_ a: inout T, _ b: inout T) {
    let temporaryA = a
    a = b
    b = temporaryA

var firstNumber = 3
var secondNumber = 7
swapValues(&firstNumber, &secondNumber)
// `firstNumber` is now 7, `secondNumber` is now 3

var humanWorld = ""
var hell = "full of evil"
swapValues(&humanWorld, &hell)
// `hell` is now empty, `humanWorld` is now "full of evil"

Generic Types


Implement a bag of generic typed stuff, stuff can be put in the bag and picked up randomly

struct Bag<Stuff> {
    var stuff = [Stuff]()
    mutating func putin(_ stuff: Stuff) {
    mutating func pickup() -> Stuff {
        let index: Int = Int(arc4random_uniform(UInt32(self.stuff.count)))
        return self.stuff.remove(at: index)

var bagOfStrings = Bag<String>();
bagOfStrings.putin("Masquito's leg")
bagOfStrings.putin("Grandma's beard")

Associated types

protocol Fate {
    associatedtype ChanceType
    associatedtype EventType
    func event(for chance: ChanceType) -> EventType

enum Chance: String {
    case birth = "a new life was born"
    case death = "a new journey just started"

class Life: Fate {
    typealias ChanceType = Chance
    typealias EventType = String
    func event(for chance: Chance) -> String {
        return chance.rawValue

let ant = Life()
print("chance \"death\" triggered event: \(ant.event(for: .death))")
print("chance \"birth\" triggered event: \(ant.event(for: .birth))")

// prints "chance "death" triggered event: a new life was born".
// prints "chance "birth" triggered event: a new journey just started".

Type constraints

func someFunctionL<T: SomeClass, U: SomeProtocol>(someT: T, someP: U)

Alternatively, Fate can be conformed this way:

// type constraint, ChanceT must conform to `Hashable`
class Robot<ChanceT: Hashable, EventT>: Fate {
    private var programmedInstructions = [ChanceT: EventT]()
    func add(_ event: EventT, for chance: ChanceT) {
        programmedInstructions[chance] = event
    // no need to have `typealias` here
    // since types can be inferred
    func event(for chance: ChanceT) -> EventT {
        return programmedInstructions[chance]!

let mrBetterHuman = Robot<String, String>()
mrBetterHuman.add("lights blinking and arms waving", for: "poweron")
mrBetterHuman.add("sudden stop with dull and lifeless eyes", for: "poweroff")

print("Robot gets chance of 'poweron': \(mrBetterHuman.event(for: "poweron"))")
print("Robot gets chance of 'poweroff': \(mrBetterHuman.event(for: "poweroff"))")

Generic where clauses

A piece of code worths thousands of words:

func crossFate<F1: Fate, F2: Fate>(_ someFate: F1, _ otherFate: F2, chance: F1.ChanceType) -> String where F1.ChanceType == F2.ChanceType, F1.EventType == F2.EventType, F1.EventType: Equatable {
    let event1 = someFate.event(for: chance)
    let event2 = otherFate.event(for: chance)
    if (event1 == event2) {
        return "Fate meets with common event: \(event1)"
    } else {
        return "Fate crossed but missed!"

let husband = Life()
let wife = Life()
let fateCrossed = crossFate(husband, wife, chance: .birth)
print("Cross fated husband and wife: \(fateCrossed)")
// Prints "Cross fated husband and wife: Fate meets with common event: a new life was born"

PS: I have a feeling that the whole Fate/Chance/Event thing could be made super fun, but for the purpose of this study notes let's stop here


Access Control

A module is a single unit of code distribution, can be imported by another module using import.


public class PublicPool {}
internal class InternalChangeRoom {}
fileprivate class MaleFilePrivateBath {}
private class PrivateLocker {}

public var publicFeedback = "Good"
internal let internalComments = "Not great"
fileprivate func someFilePrivateFunction() {}
private func privateFunctionRoom() {}

Access control levels

  • open and public entities can be used within any source file from their defining module, and also in source files from other modules that imports the defining module. Usually used for framework public interface.
  • internal entities can be used within any source file from defining module but not in any file outside.
  • file-private entities can only be used by its own defining source file.
  • private entities can be used only by the enclosing declaration and extensions of the declaration in the same file
  • default access level is internal

open vs public

  • public classes and members can be subclassed / overridden only within its defining module.
  • open classes and members can be subclassed / overridden within its defining module as well as importing module.

No entities can be defined in terms of another entity that has more restrictive access level

an open property defined in a private class, or a public function with private type parameters is like saying you can get a gift without buying our product and details are written on a note inside our product package.

Unit tests targets

A unit test target can access any internal entity, if you mark the import declaration for a product module with the @testable attribute and compile that produce module with testing enabled.

Custom types

The access control level of a type also affects the default access level of the type's members

  • private or file private type -> private or type private members
  • internal or public type -> internal members
  • public type defaults to have internal members, to ensure public-facing API for a type doesn't expose internal workings by mistake

Other types

You can skip to the end of the below list for simple way to remember.

  • the access level for a tuple type is the most restrictive access level of all types used in the tuple
  • the access level for a function type is the most restrictive access level of the function's parameter types and return type, access level must be specified as part of function definition if its calculated access level doesn't match its contextual default
  • individual cases of an enumeration has same access level as the enumeration
  • types used for any raw values or associated values in enumeration must have access level at least as high as the enumeration
  • nested types has the same kind of access level rule as custom types -> members, actually nested types are also a kind of member of enclosing type
  • a subclass can't have higher access level than its superclass, however, an override can make an inherited class member more accessible than its superclass version
  • a constant, variable or property can't be more public than its type
  • getters and setters for constants, variables, properties, and subscripts have the same access level as the constants, variables or properties
  • you can give a setter a lower access level than its corresponding getter: fileprivate(set), private(set) or internal(set) before the var or subscript introducer
  • custom initializers can be assigned an access level less or equal to the type that they initialize
  • a required initializer must have the same access level as the class it belongs to
  • default initializer has the same access level as the type it initializes, unless for public type the default initializer is internal
  • default memberwise initializer for a structure type has the same access level of the lowest access level of the structure's stored properties, public structure has internal default initializer unless specified explicitly
  • the access level of each requirement within a protocol definition is automatically set to the same access level as the protocol
  • a type can conform to a protocol with a lower access level than the type itself
  • this is not about Access Control, just here to test if you read carefully; So, if you see this, you can be confident that you are a careful person
  • any type members added in an extension have the same default access level as type members declared in the original type being extended
  • you can mark an extension with explicit access-level modifier, e.g. private extension
  • a type alias can have an access level less than or equal to the access level of the type it aliases

simple way to remember

  • the volume of a timber bucket depends on the shorted piece of timber
  • imagine a passenger on a airplane has recently visited virus infected area and not feeling well on the plane, all passengers have to be examined.


Advanced Operators

Bitwise operators

one and zero looked just right, made for each other: 1, the definite, upright line; and 0, the diagram of nothing at all - Sadie Plant, zeros + ones

Bitwise NOT

let initialBits: UInt8 = 0b00001111
let invertedBits = ~initialBits // equals 11110000

Bitwise AND

let partialTruth: UInt8 = 0b11111000
let missingTruth: UInt8 = 0b00111001
let theRealTruth = partialTruth & missingTruth // equals 00111000

Bitwise OR

let upperTeeth: UInt8 = 0b01010101
let lowerTeeth: UInt8 = 0b10101010
let bite = upperTeeth | lowerTeeth // equals 11111111

Bitwise XOR

let boysAndGirls: UInt8 = 0b00010100
let girlsAndBoys: UInt8 = 0b00000101
let nextGenerationExistence = boysAndGirls ^ girlsAndBoys
 // equals 00010001

Bitwise shift

unsigned integers:

  1. existing bits are moved to the left or right by the requested number of places
  2. any bits moved beyond the bounds of integer's storage are discarded
  3. zeros are inserted in the spaces left behind

signed integers: when shifting signed integers to the right, apply the same rule as unsigned integers, but fill any empty bits on the left with the sign bit, rather than with a zero.

Overflow operators

var unsignedOverflow = UInt8.max // 255
// unsignedOverflow += 1 would cause an error
unsignedOverflow = unsignedOverflow &+ 1 // 0
  • overflow addition (&+)
  • overflow subtraction (&-)
  • overflow multiplication (&*)

Precedence and Associativity

2 + 3 % 4 * 5 // equals 17
2 + ((3 % 4) * 5) // equals 17

Operator Methods

Classes and structures can provide their own implementation of existing operators (ie. overloading).


The universe was born with two concepts: spirit and material. Characteristic is a structure with spirit and material as boolean properties. Use this as a start, define custom operators and derive the follows: human, evil and divine.

struct Characteristic {
    var spirit = false
    var material = false

infix operator &|
infix operator |&
prefix operator ...

extension Characteristic {
    static func && (left: Characteristic, right: Characteristic) -> Characteristic {
        return Characteristic(spirit: left.spirit && right.spirit, material: left.material && right.material)
    static func || (left: Characteristic, right: Characteristic) -> Characteristic {
        return Characteristic(spirit: left.spirit || right.spirit, material: left.material || right.material)
    static func &| (left: Characteristic, right: Characteristic) -> Characteristic {
        return Characteristic(spirit: left.spirit && right.spirit, material: left.material || right.material)
    static func |& (left: Characteristic, right: Characteristic) -> Characteristic {
        return Characteristic(spirit: left.spirit || right.spirit, material: left.material && right.material)
    static prefix func ... (c: Characteristic) -> String {
        switch (c.spirit, c.material) {
        case (true, false):
            return "Spirit without matter"
        case (false, true):
            return "Souless materialist"
        case (false, false):
            return "Neither spirit or material, initial void"
        case (true, true):
            return "Ordinary people, mind and body"

let spiritual = Characteristic(spirit: true, material: false)
let material = Characteristic(spirit: false, material: true)

let human = spiritual || material
let evil = spiritual &| material
let divine = spiritual |& material

print("Human: \(...human)")
print("Evil: \(...evil)")
print("Divine: \(...divine)")



A pattern represents the structure of a single value or a composite value. e.g. (1, 2) is a comma-separated list of two elements, matched by the pattern (x, y).

Wildcard Pattern

let somethingImportant = "Don't struggle which side of bread you spread butter on - you eat both sides."
for _ in 1...3 {
    // repeat three times

Identifier pattern

An identifier pattern is the variable or constant itself, matched by any value.

let someValue = 123

Value binding pattern

Binds matched values to variable or constant names

let point = (1, 9, 3)
switch point {
case let (x, 9, _):
    print("At y-coordinate 9, x-coordinates of \(x), there's something on the z-plane.")

Tuple pattern

Comma-separated list of zero or more patterns, enclosed by parentheses.

let (goodNews, badNews): (Int, Int) = (2, 3)
let newsGoodBadPerDay = [(1, 0), (3, 2), (5, 7)]
for (goodNews, _) in newsGoodBadPerDay {print("ignore bad news, number of good news on the day: \(goodNews)")}

The parentheses around a single element pattern has no effect, the followings are equivalent:

let someonesAge = 1
let (sometowsAge) = 2
let (somethreesAge): Int = 3

Optional pattern

An optional pattern matches values wrapped in a some(Wrapped) case of an Optional<Wrapped> enumeration.

let kingsClothes: Int? = nil
if case .some(let x) = kingsClothes {
} else {
    print("Kid: the King has no clothes!")

if case let x? = kingsClothes {
} else {
    print("Kid: the King has no clothes!")

Type-casting patterns

is <type>
<pattern> as <type>

Expression pattern

Value of expression. Appears only in switch statement case label.

let spaceDust = (102, 57, 81)
switch spaceDust {
case (0, 0, 0):
case (-10...10, -10...10, -10...10):
    print("Around origin")
    print("Somewhere else")

You can overload ~= operator to provide custom expression matching behaviour

func ~=(pattern: String, value: Int) -> Bool {
    return pattern == "\(value)"

switch spaceDust {
case ("0", "0", "0"):
    print("Space dust starts from origin")
    print("Space dust has gone from origin")


Error Handling

If you have Java background, error handling is the similar trick as Java's try...catch... and throw. In Swift, errors are represented by values of types that conform to the empty Error protocol which indicates that type can be used for error handling.

Enumerations are well suited to modelling a group of related error conditions.

func functionThatThrowsErrors() throws -> String
func functionThatDoesntThrowError() -> String

Handling errors using do-catch

do {
    try <expression>
} catch <pattern 1> {
} catch <pattern 2> where <condition> {


In the classic of Buddhism, there are seven types of sorrows in life: birth, aging, sickness, death, separation of lovers, hatred and unsatisfiable desire. Represents each type of sorrows as an Error, define a function that can throw these errors, and a piece of code that try the function and catch possible errors.

enum SorrowOfLife: Error {
    case birth(msg: String)
    case aging(msg: String)
    case sickness(msg: String)
    case death(msg: String)
    case separationOfLovers(msg: String)
    case hatred(msg: String)
    case unsatisfiableDesire(msg: String)

enum LifeTarget {
    case human, god

func rollDiceOfLife(for target: LifeTarget) throws -> String {
    guard target == .human else {
        return "silent, calm and harmony"
    let sorrows: [SorrowOfLife] = [.birth(msg: "sin entered the world through one's birth"),
                                   .aging(msg: "there was a face in the mirror like a face out of time"),
                                   .sickness(msg: "if we got sick, at least we didn't die"),
                                   .death(msg: "death through sin, so death came to all people, because all sinned"),
                                   .separationOfLovers(msg: "over the sea grows the moon bright; We gaze on it far, far apart. Lovers complain of long, long night."),
                                   .hatred(msg: "why then when people part, is the moon full and bright?"),
                                   .unsatisfiableDesire(msg: "happiness lies in contentment")]
    let number = arc4random_uniform(UInt32(sorrows.count + 1))
    if number < sorrows.count {
        throw sorrows[Int(number)]
    return "there is still hope"

do {
    let diceResult = try rollDiceOfLife(for: .human)
    print("dice result: \(diceResult)")
} catch SorrowOfLife.birth(let msg) {
    print("sorrow of life: \(msg)")
} catch SorrowOfLife.aging(let msg) {
    print("sorrow of life: \(msg)")
} catch SorrowOfLife.sickness(let msg) {
    print("sorrow of life: \(msg)")
} catch SorrowOfLife.death(let msg) {
    print("sorrow of life: \(msg)")
} catch SorrowOfLife.separationOfLovers(let msg) {
    print("sorrow of life: \(msg)")
} catch SorrowOfLife.hatred(let msg) {
    print("sorrow of life: \(msg)")
} catch SorrowOfLife.unsatisfiableDesire(let msg) {
    print("sorrow of life: \(msg)")
} catch _ {
    print("something unexpected in life")

Error to optional values

if let onesLife = try? rollDiceOfLife(for: .human) {
    print("One's life: \(onesLife)")
} else {
    print("One's life thrown error.")

Disabling error propagation

sometimes you know there won't be an error thrown

let divineLife = try! rollDiceOfLife(for: .god)
print("Divine's life: \(divineLife)")

Cleanup with defer

excuted when current scope exists, in reverse order; I guess it is to have a logical way of cleanup from the most recent to the least recent changes; It's like when you go upstairs from level 1 to level 3, and you want to go downstairs, you have to follow the reversed way as when you went up, that is level 3, 2, 1.

func printInstructions() {
    print("Velilind's Laws of Experientation:")
    print("1. If reproducibility may be a problem, conduct the test only once.")
    defer {
        print("cleanup step 1")
    print("2. If a straight line fit is required, obtain only two data points.")
    defer {
        print("cleanup step 2")


// prints:
// Velilind's Laws of Experientation:
// 1. If reproducibility may be a problem, conduct the test only once.
// 2. If a straight line fit is required, obtain only two data points.
// cleanup step 2
// cleanup step 1


Encoding and Decoding



func encode(to: Encoder) throws


init(from decoder: Decoder) throws


typealias Codable = Encodable & Decodable

Automatic coding

Conforming to Codable and make sure all stored properties are also codable


a fool with a tool (is still a fool).

struct Fool: Codable {
    var id: String
    var name: String
    var tool: Tool
    // renaming properties
    enum CodingKeys: String, CodingKey {
        case id = "identifier"
        case name
        case tool

struct Tool: Codable {
    var name: String

Coding custom types

var tool = Tool(name: "Too")
var fool = Fool(id: "007", name: "Foo", tool: tool)

let jsonEncoder = JSONEncoder()
let jsonData = try! jsonEncoder.encode(fool)
let jsonString = String(data: jsonData, encoding: .utf8)!

let jsonDecoder = JSONDecoder()
fool = try! jsonDecoder.decode(Fool.self, from: jsonData)
  • CodingKeys is a nested enumeration inside the type
  • conforms to CodingKey
  • also need String as raw type
  • include all properties in the enumeration including the ones that are not renamed
  • created by default, implemented when renaming is needed


  • extension cannot conform to Codable
  • must use concrete type to encode and decode


Memory Safety

  • Weak references don't increase/decrease the reference count of a certain object, declared as optionals, they become nil once the reference count reaches zero
  • Unowned references behave similar to weak, they always expect to have a value - can't be declared as optional.

Capture list

A capture list is an array of variables captured by a closure


Pokemon runs fast, we want to catch Pikachu when it appears.

var pokemon = "Pikachu"
var closure = { print("Let's catch \(pokemon)") }
pokemon = "Zoobat"
// Print: "Let's catch Zoobat"

pokemon = "Pikachu"
closure = { [pokemon] in print("Let's catch \(pokemon)") }
pokemon = "Zoobat"
// Print: "Let's catch Pikachu"

With reference types, a capture list makes the closure to capture and store the current reference stored inside the captured variable.

Unowned self

class Book {
    var name = "Book"
    lazy var sageRetrieveContent: () -> String = {
        [unowned self] in
        return "\(self.name): reading helps us learn so much about beauty and truth that we can live a better life in our own ways."
    lazy var ordinaryRetrieveContent: () -> String = {
        [unowned self] in
        return "\(self.name): as long as one studies hard, wealth and beautiful women will all come his way."

let book = Book()

The strong weak pattern

When self could be nil

extension Book {
    func checkWorm() {
        DispatchQueue.main.async {
            [weak self] in
            guard let strongSelf = self else {
                print("The book no longer exists.")
            let hasWorm = strongSelf.name.contains("worm")
            if hasWorm {
                print("The book has worm.")



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