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grype/SwiftEthel 0.9.7
A lightweight framework for composing web service clients in Swift
⭐️ 1
🕓 13 weeks ago
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.package(url: "https://github.com/grype/SwiftEthel.git", from: "0.9.7")



Lightweight framework for composing web service clients in Swift. It encourages to reason about web services in terms of logical structures, and promotes clean and easy to maintain architecture.

Ethel has a simple architecture that is able to support a wide range of APIs, including REST and GraphQL. It can be used to write complete SDKs of varying complexity.


This is a swift package. Use swift package manager to add to a project...


Ethel uses Beacon for logging. To start logging, simply create a logger and start it on Beacon.ethel object - which is the default Beacon on which the framework emits signals.

let logger = ConsoleLogger(name: "Playground")
logger.start(on: [Beacon.ethel])


Let's take GitHub's Gists API for example. We'll start by defining the client class.

The Client

struct GHClientConfiguration {
    var url: URL
    var authToken: String?
    static var `default` = GHClientConfiguration(url: URL(string: "https://api.github.com/")!, authToken: nil)

class GHClient : Client {
    override var baseUrl: URL? { return configuration.url }
    static var `default` = GHClient(configuration: GHClientConfiguration.default)
    var configuration: GHClientConfiguration
    init(configuration aConfig: GHClientConfiguration) {
        configuration = aConfig
        super.init(url: aConfig.url, sessionConfiguration: URLSessionConfiguration.background(withIdentifier: "GHClient"))

The client needs to be initialized with a base URL of the web service, and a URLSessionConfiguration to use for an internally managed URLSession. In this particular case, we capture the base URL in the GHClientConfiguration, and use a background session configuration.

The Endpoints

Next, we need to define an endpoint for interfacing with gists. It's a good idea to keep one endpoint class for a particular endpoint (i.e. one class for describing all of the API at the /gists level). Use instance variables to capture various parameters that the endpoint accepts.

Here we define a simple endpoint for /gists, and a method for retrieving a single gist:

class GHGistsEndpoint : Endpoint {
    override class var path: Path { Path() / "gists" }
    func gist(withId id: String) async throws -> GHGist {
        try await getJSON(decoder: nil) { (transport) in

Class-side var path returns a path into the web service starting with the client's baseUrl. The method gist(withId:) returns a Promise which can be used to retrieve the actual value, handle an error, map response to whatever you want, etc. The method retrieves a JSON structure that is converted to GHGist, which looks something like this:

struct GHGist : Codable {
    var id: String?
    var url: URL?
    enum CodingKeys: String, CodingKey {
        case id, url

Nothing special there - just a Codable struct.

When calling getJSON, you can provide your own instance of JSONDecoder, otherwise, a default JSONDecoder() instance will be used.

The last argument to getJSON is a block that will be given an instance of Transporter, which encapsulates both, the request and the response. The optional block gives you a chance to configure it, and in the above example, we're modifying the request URL by appending a URL component to access the gist with the given identifier.

Lastly, let's make this endpoint accessible via the client:

extension GHClient {
  var gists : GHGistsEndpoint {
    return self / GHGistsEndpoint.self

At this point we can ask the web service for a gist by ID:

let client = GHClient.default
  .gist(withId: "...")
  .done { (gist) in
    // do something about that gist

Both, the client and an endpoint get to configure the Transport at the time of execution, via configure(on aTransport: Transport) method. Which makes it easy to configure requests for all the endpoints, via the client, and per individual endpoint, say adding query items to URL based on instance variables. This is done prior to evaluating the optional block passed to getJSON() method - which is your last opportunity to modify the Transport before the client makes a request.

Let's create another endpoint for /gists/public:

class GHPublicGistsEndpoint : Endpoint {
    override class var path : Path { GHGistsEndpoint.path / "public" }
    var since: Date?
    func configure(on aTransport: Transport) {
        if let since = since {
            aTransport.add(queryItem: URLQueryItem(name: "since", value: dateFormatter.string(from: since)))
    func list() -> Promise<[GHGist]> {
        return getJSON()

Let's connect it via the /gists endpoint:

extension GHGistsEndpoint {
  var `public` : GHPublicGistsEndpoint {
    return self / GHPublicGistsEndpoint.self

And, finally, list some public gists:

let endpoint = client.gists.public
endpoint.since = Date().addingTimeInterval(-86400)
endpoint.list().done { (gists) in
  // do something


It just happens that the /gists/public endpoint is paginated. By using page and per_page URL queries we can enumerate over a collection of gists, access specific ranges of items. All we need to do is make the endpoint behave as a Sequence, using an iterator that captures this information:

struct GHIterator<U: SequenceEndpoint> : EndpointIterator {
    typealias Element = U.Element
    var endpoint: U
    var hasMore: Bool = true
    var page: Int = 1
    var pageSize: Int = 5
    private var currentOffset: Int = 0
    private var elements: [Element]?
    init(_ anEndpoint: U) {
        endpoint = anEndpoint
    private var needsFetch: Bool {
        guard hasMore else { return false }
        return elements == nil || currentOffset >= elements!.count
    mutating func next() -> Element? {
        guard hasMore else { return nil }
        if needsFetch {
        guard let elements = elements, elements.count > currentOffset else {
            return nil
        let result = elements[currentOffset]
        currentOffset += 1
        return result
    private mutating func fetch() {
        currentOffset = 0
        do {
            elements = try endpoint.next(with: self as! U.Iterator).wait()
            hasMore = (elements?.count ?? 0) == pageSize
            page += 1
        } catch {
            print("Error: \(error)")

The iterator maintains a variable hasMore indicating whether there's more results to fetch, and next() method to return the next element. There, we feed in a page of results at a time, and iterate over the results one by one. Fetching is done by calling SequenceEndpoint.next(with:) with the configured iterator. After fetching the page, we simply increment the current page number...

Finally, extend GHPublicGistsEndpoint to conform to SequenceEndpoint:

extension GHPublicGistsEndpoint : SequenceEndpoint {
    typealias Iterator = GHIterator<GHPublicGistsEndpoint>
    typealias Element = GHGist
    func makeIterator() -> Iterator {
        return GHIterator(self)
    func next(with iterator: Iterator) -> Promise<[GHGist]> {
        return getJSON() { (transport) in
            transport.add(queryItem: URLQueryItem(name: "page", value: "\(iterator.page)"))
            transport.add(queryItem: URLQueryItem(name: "per_page", value: "\(iterator.pageSize)"))

Now, we can query the web service as if it was a Sequence:

DispatchQueue.global(qos: .background).async {
    .forEach { (gist) in
      // do something

This will cause the client to make additional requests to the web service as needed. Convenient, but notice that this will continue to make requests until we go through all of them, which is often not the desired behavior. For that reason, all of the Sequence's enumeration methods are complimented with limiting variants, like:

DispatchQueue.global(qos: .background).async {
    .forEach(limit: 10) { (gist) in
      // do something

or more generally speaking:

DispatchQueue.global(qos: .background).async {
    .forEach(until: { (gists) -> Bool
      // return true when we need to bail
    }) { (gist) in
      // do something

Because all of these methods require making a network request and processing the response synchronously, we are dispatching the process into a background thread. This is possible because we can:

DispatchQueue.global(qos: .background).async {
  var iterator = client.gists.public.makeIterator()
  while iterator.hasMore {
    let nextItem = iterator.next()

This also make it possible to fetch data using subscripts:

extension GHPublicGistsEndpoint {
  subscript(index: Int) -> GHGist? {
    var iterator = makeIterator()
    iterator.pageSize = 1
    iterator.page = index + 1
    return iterator.next()
  subscript(range: Range<Int>) -> [GHGist] {
    var iterator = makeIterator()
    iterator.page = Int(floor(Double(range.lowerBound / iterator.pageSize))) + 1
    var result = [GHGist](https://raw.github.com/grype/SwiftEthel/main/)
    while iterator.hasMore, result.count < range.upperBound - range.lowerBound {
      guard let found = try? next(with: iterator).wait() else { break }

      let startOffset = (iterator.page - 1) * iterator.pageSize
      let endOffset = startOffset + iterator.pageSize - 1

      let low = Swift.max(range.lowerBound - startOffset, 0)
      let high = iterator.pageSize - Swift.max(endOffset - range.upperBound, 0)

      result.append(contentsOf: found[low..<high])
      iterator.page += 1
    return result

Let's give it a try:

DispatchQueue.global(qos: .background).async {
  let gist = client.gists.public[index]
  let someGists = client.gists.public[2..<42]

This is it, for now...


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Last commit: 1 week ago
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