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danielt1263/CLE-Architecture-Tools 6.2.0
A library for helping conform to the Cause-Logic-Effect Architecture.
⭐️ 39
🕓 2 weeks ago
.package(url: "https://github.com/danielt1263/CLE-Architecture-Tools.git", from: "6.2.0")


The File Templates can be use to create new Rx Scenes (use one of these instead of creating a View Controller directly.) Place the folder in Library/Developer/Xcode/Templates/.

The Utilities folder contains support code that should be included in the project (and will be automatically included if you use SPM or Cocoapods.) The most important files, from an architectural perspective, are "Stage.swift" and "Scene.swift". The others contain code that I used in 80% or more of my projects.

The Tools folder contains helpers that I have developed but aren't needed in most projects. If you want to use any of those, you will have to drag them into your project manually.


  • RxSwift
  • RxCocoa

A fundamental philosophy of CLE is the idea of an imperative shell with a functional core (first explained by Gary Bernhardt) and expanded on in Swift by Matt Diephouse. This means, among other things that the side effects (the imperative part) are on the outside edge of the system and are not injected into the logic. This is a major departure from every other architectural style that I know of. The whole point of this architectural style is that you never need to Mock or Stub out any code in testing.

Notice that I didn't mention Fakes in the above. Just Mocks and Stubs. That's because even CLE requires that you use TestObservable which is a Fake. If you are careful with the environment type that you use in the Store class and ensure that you only need to pass in Fakes through it when testing, you can keep to the philosophy while using it, but it doesn't strictly enforce it as well as the rest of my architecture.

I'm happy to go into more depth for those that are interested. You can hit me up on social media or raise an issue on github if you have any questions or otherwise want to discuss it.

I was helping someone recently and expressed the CLE architecture this way. maybe it will help others...

Whenever you have a side effect that needs to be performed and you need the results. The template is something like:

let resultOfEffect = trigger
    .withLatestFrom(additionalDataNeeded) // if any
    .map { logic($0) } // handle any logic to convert the input data into something the effect needs
    .flatMap { performSideEffect($0) }
    .share(replay: 1) // if you are using the result in multiple places.

If you don't need the result, then it's

    .withLatestFrom(additionalDataNeeded) // if any
    .map { logic($0) } // handle any logic to convert the input data into something the effect needs
    .subscribe(onNext: { performEffect($0) })
    .disposed(by: disposeBag)


_ = trigger
    .withLatestFrom(additionalDataNeeded) // if any
    .take(until: event) // often `rx.deallocating`
    .subscribe(onNext: { performEffect($0) })

Sometimes the trigger is complex. Sometimes the additionalDataNeeded is big. Either way the two templates above will serve most needs.

Version 2.0 has been pushed. I had to up the version number because depending on exactly how one is constructing their scenes, it could be a breaking change. For most applications of the library you will not have to update your code at all.

What's the big change that doesn't change much?

In version 1.x of the library, the scene creation methods created the view controller, then loaded the view controller's view and then called the connect closure. The view had to be loaded to ensure that all the VC's subviews were built so you could connect to the buttons, text fields and so on. However, this meant that the view was fully loaded before being added to the navigation or presentation stack, so you couldn't tell from inside the connect function how the controller was being presented. For version 2.x, I made the connect closure escaping and now the library doesn't call it until after UIKit loads the view. This is done after the controller has been attached to the navigation or presentation stack. This means that for 2.x, you will have access to all the UIViewController properties that you normally would, even the ones that don't get assigned until after the controller has been attached to the view controller hierarchy.


Three Ways to Install

  1. Drag and drop the Utilities folder into your xcode workspace under the project name folder

  2. Use Swift Package Manager.

  3. Use CocoaPods.


target 'YOUR_TARGET_NAME' do
   pod 'Cause-Logic-Effect'

Replace YOUR_TARGET_NAME and then, in the Podfile directory, type:

$ pod install


The idea behind this library is to provide an easy way to wrap a view controller as an Observable resource in order to make it a simple asynchronous event. In essence, your code will be able to work with its view controllers the same way it works with its server or database, through flatMap and bind.


The core type is the Scene which consists of a view controller, along with an Observable that emits any needed user provided values along with a stop event when it's done. Alternatively, the calling code can dispose() the Scene's Observable if it wants to dismiss the view controller before completion.

A Scene can be created from a view controller by calling the scene method. There is an instance method for constructing a Scene from an already existing view controller or you can use the scene static method which will load a view controller from a storyboard and create a Scene using that.

Displaying a Scene

Once a Scene is created, it can be displayed in any of a number of ways. You can present it, push it onto a navigation controller, or show it. All the same ways that you can work with a normal view controller. Whatever way you choose to display your Scene, you are assured that when it's disposed of, it will hide itself using the correct inverse of the display method. (So if presented it will dismiss, if pushed it will pop, etc.) The functions for displaying a Scene are in the "Stage.swift" file.

An Example Scene

Virtually every program uses an Alert controller at some point. The library provides methods on UIAlertController for some of the most common actions a view controller is used for. They are connectOK() which returns an Observable that emits a Void when the user taps the OK button and a connectChoice which will add a button for each choice provided, along with a cancel button, and return an Observable that emits the choice taken by the user (or nil of the user cancels.)

Working with a flow

A Scene can also represent a number of child Scenes that all work together as a "flow" or "process". Below is an example of such a construct. A flow is a function that returns a Scene and that Scene actually encapsulates a number of child Scenes that work together to get a job done. If any one child scene complets, the entire flow completes. Notice that unlike a typical Coordinator type, you don't need to manage any resources. At no point do you need to manually keep track of what view controllers are currently being displayed.

Example of Use

When the user taps the "forgot password" link in one of my apps:

    .bind(onNext: presentScene(animated: true, scene: forgotPasswordFlow))
    .disposed(by: disposeBag)

The forgot password flow consists of presenting three screens in order:

func forgotPasswordFlow() -> Scene<Void> {
    // This scene asks the user to enter their phone number.
    let forgotPassword = ForgotPasswordViewController.scene { $0.phoneNumber() }

    // Once we get the phone number, send a one-time password to the user and ask them to enter it.
    let otpResult = forgotPassword.action
        .observe(on: MainScheduler.instance)
        .flatMapFirst(presentScene(animated: true) { phoneNumber in
            OTPViewController.scene { $0.passwordResetToken(forPhoneNumber: phoneNumber) }

    // After they enter the OTP, allow them to reset their password.
    let resetPasswordResult = otpResult
        .observe(on: MainScheduler.instance)
        .flatMapFirst(presentScene(animated: true) { token in
            ResetPasswordViewController.scene { $0.resetPassword(withToken: token) }

    // When `resetPasswordResult` completes, the entire flow will automatically unwind.
    return Scene(controller: forgotPassword.controller, action: resetPasswordResult)

Imperative Use

On the chance that you are converting from imperative code to using this library. The following functions will come in handy:

func call<T>(_ fn: (()) -> Observable<T>) -> Observable<T> {

func final(_ fn: (()) -> Void) {

The call function is for when your view controller is returning information to its caller, otherwise use the final function. You can wrap these around the functions in the Stage.swift file. So for example:

final(presentScene(animated: true) {
    UIAlertController(title: "Greeting", message: "Hello World", preferredStyle: .alert)
        .scene { $0.connectOK() }

_ = call(presentScene(animated: true, over: button) {
    UIAlertController(title: nil, message: "Which One?", preferredStyle: .actionSheet)
        .scene { $0.connectChoice(choices: ["This One", "That One"]) }
.subscribe(onNext: {
    print("A choice was made:", $0 as Any)

Other Types

The other types/methods/functions in the library are ancillary that I use in at least 80% of my apps.

The ActivityTracker and ErrorRouter types are used to track network requests. The cycle function can be used when you have an Observable that feeds back on itself. The Identifier type is used to create ids for Identifiable types. RxHelpers contains some misc methods to make mapping and Observer success easier to deal with. The "UIColor+Extensions" file contains a convenience init function to create a color from a hex value. The "UIViewController+Rx.swift" file wraps some basic functions for handling a view controller internally. It includes dismissSelf and popSelf on those rare occasions when you want to remove a view controller before it completes.


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