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benboecker/Inject 3.0.4
Simple Dependency Injection in Swift
⭐️ 0
🕓 9 weeks ago
.package(url: "https://github.com/benboecker/Inject.git", from: "3.0.4")

Inject

Dependency Injection using Swift 5.1 Property Wrappers

This project is based on the ideas and concepts of the Wind Framework, which provides a much more detailed and comprehensive solution for dependency injection. Inject is meant to be a lightweight alternative for smaller apps.

How does it work?

The concept of dependency injection takes a centralised approach with a container object that is responsible for initialising different components of an app that depend on other components (and providing them as well). By using protocols to declare dependencies and registering concrete types in the container, the components and their dependencies are decoupled from one another. This results in a more structured and testable architecture.

How can I get it?

Using the Swift Package Manager, you can add the repository to your Xcode project as an external dependency. To integrate Inject into your Xcode project using Xcode 11, specify it in Project > Swift Packages:

https://github.com/benboecker/Inject.git

Alternatively, you can download the repository and include the files manually. This way, you will not get updates to the project.

How do I use it?

Using the dependency injection system of the Inject Framework is a three step process.

  • First you need a component. This is as easy as conforming to the Component protocol and providing an init() method to meet the requirements.
  • Register the component's type at the global Container via the register(_ types: Component.Type…) function.
  • Declare the variable for the component with the @Inject property wrapper.

A very simple example

A simple component could look like this:

struct Settings: Component {
    var apiToken = "abc123"
}

To make use of a component, its type needs to be registered with the container. Currently the container exists only as a singleton of the Container type, but this may change in the future to support multiple containers per application.

Registering the component looks like this:

Container.default.register(Settings.self)

To actually use the component, the @Inject property wrapper is used while declaring the variable.

struct API {
    @Inject var settings: Settings
}

The dependency injection system handles the initialization process of the settings variable so it is ready to use.

A more complex example

Where the framework really shines is when using protocols and unit tests.

Consider the following example where an API component handles network calls to an existing service that authenticates via a token passed to it.

The API token is defined as a protocol.

protocol Token: Component {
    var value: String { get }
}

The protocol inherits from the Component protocol, so every type conforming to Token becomes a component automatically.

The Token protocol is used by the API struct by declaring a token with the @Inject keyword.

struct API {
    @Inject token: Token
}

The concrete implementation of the Token in the app looks like this.

struct ProductionToken: Token {
    var value: String
}

Also, the concrete type must be registered with the global container, otherwise the @Inject property wrapper will fail to resolve the component and the app will crash.

Container.default.register(ProductionToken.self)

In a unit test for the API struct, the token can be mocked with another implementation, that returns a test value.

struct TestToken: Token {
    var value: String {
        get { "TESTTOKEN" }
        set { }
    }
}

In the test case we register not the production token from the app, but the TestToken type. The property wrapper of the API now resolves to the TestToken, so this test will succeed.

class APITests: XCTestCase {
    func testToken() {
        Container.default.register(TestToken.self)
        let api = API()

        XCTAssertEqual(api.token.value, "TESTTOKEN")
    }
}

Direct resolution of dependencies

The Container type allows you to resolve depencies directly, via the resolveDependencies<T>() method. It returns an array of all registered components for a given type, since it is possible to register multiple components to a type.

GitHub

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Last commit: 1 week ago
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