Swiftpack.co - athankefalas/Stitcher as Swift Package

Swiftpack.co is a collection of thousands of indexed Swift packages. Search packages.
See all packages published by athankefalas.
athankefalas/Stitcher v1.1.0
A dependency management and injection library for Swift projects
⭐️ 2
🕓 2 weeks ago
.package(url: "https://github.com/athankefalas/Stitcher.git", from: "v1.1.0")

Stitcher

Stitcher is a dependency management and injection library for Swift projects.

Contents:

✔️ Minimum Requirements

Stitcher requires at least Swift version 5.9.

Stitcher depends on Foundation and Dispatch so it is available in every platform that they are available, including non Apple platforms such as Linux and Windows. Please note, that WebAssembly is not currently supported.

Any publicly exposed APIs that reference publishers use Combine in the platforms where it is available, or OpenCombine in other platforms.

⏱ Version History

Version Changes
0.9.1 Pre-release.
1.0.0 Initial release.
1.1.0 Performance & stability improvements, relaxed minimum requirements and macro suppport.

🧰 Features

  • Easy and fast setup.
  • Flexible declarative API for registering dependencies, including conditional dependency definitions.
  • Composable dependency management support for modular projects.
  • Supports for injection by name, by type and by associated values.
  • Type safe initialization parameters for dependency initialization.
  • Support for indexing dependencies in order to minimize injection time even with large number of dependencies.
  • Dynamic cyclic dependency detection at runtime.

🧩 Extensions

  1. StitcherMacros

    A support package that defines meta programming utilities using Swift macros, enabling automatic parameter injection for functions and initializers as well as utilities for automatic dependency registration.

📦 Installation

Swift Package

You may add Stitcher as a Swift Package dependency using Xcode 11.0 or later, by selecting File > Swift Packages > Add Package Dependency... or File > Add packages... in Xcode 13.0 and later, and adding the url below:

https://github.com/athankefalas/Stitcher.git

Manually

You may also install this library manually by downloading the Stitcher project and including it in your project.

⚡️ Quick Start

Define dependencies in your App struct or your UIApplication delegate, by using the @Depenendecies property wrapper:


@Dependencies
private var container = DependencyContainer {
    // Dependency with no parameters
    AuthenticationService()
    
    // Dependency with parameters
    Dependency { location in
        ImageUploadService(targeting: location)
    }
    .scope(.instance)
}

Inject a dependency using the @Injected property wrapper:


class LoginSceneViewModel: ObservableObject {
    
    @Injected
    private var authenticationService: AuthenticationService
    
    func login(email: Email, password: Password) async {
        await authenticationService.attemptLogin(email: email, password: Password)
    }
}

class ProfileSceneViewModel: ObservableObject {
    
    @Injected(ImageUploadLocation.profileAvatar)
    private var avatarUploadService: ImageUploadService
    
    func upload(image: UIImage) async {
        await avatarUploadService.upload(image)
    } 
}

📋 Library Overview

Dependency Container

A DependencyContainer is a data structure that owns a set of dependencies. A container can be created by registering dependencies or by merging multiple other dependency containers. Dependencies can be registered in a container using a provider closure that builds the registrar of the container. The provider closure uses a result builder to compose the dependencies of a container, with support for conditional statements and grouping. The builder supports different types of components, with the most common being the DependencyGroup and Dependency.


DependencyContainer {

    Dependency {
        LocalStorageService()
    }
    
    if AppModel.shared.isPrincipalPresent {
        Dependency {
            UserAccountService()
        }
    }
    
    DependencyGroup {
    
        Dependency {
            AuthenticationService()
        }
        
    }
    .enabled(AppModel.shared.canUseAuthentication)

}

In order to invalidate the contents of the dependency container, after a value changes, you can directly use properties of objects with the @Observable macro or instead use an ObservableObject or any publisher to manually invalidate them. Manual invalidation uses a pseudo-modifier method called invalidated.

Manual invalidation of a container:


// Invalidate the dependency container when the shared instance of AppModel changes:
DependencyContainer {

    if ObservableModel.shared.isLoggedIn {
        Dependency {
            LogoutService()
        }
    }

}
.invalidated(tracking: ObservableModel.shared)

// Invalidate the dependency container when the authenticationStateChangedPublisher receives an event:
DependencyContainer {

    if ObservableModel.shared.isLoggedIn {
        Dependency {
            LogoutService()
        }
    }

}
.invalidated(tracking: authenticationStateChangedPublisher)

Dependency containers are reference types, so the invalidation can be attached to any container as long as we have a reference to it, even if it is already activated or managed by the @Dependencies property wrapper. When using manual invalidation with observable objects or publishers, please keep in mind that continously or frequently invalidating a dependency container can result in deteriorated performance.

After defining a dependency container it has to be activated in order for the dependencies it contains to be available for injection. Managed dependency containers have their lifetime automatically managed, while unmanaged containers must manually manage their activation and deactivation.

Managed dependency containers can be defined by using the @Dependencies property wrapper and will be active as long as the wrapped property is not deallocated. Changing the value of the property will deactivate the old container and activate the new one. Creating a managed container simply requires wrapping a dependency container using the property wrapper:


@Dependencies
var container = DependencyContainer {}

Unmanaged containers, are dependency containers that are defined without using the @Dependencies property wrapper. After defining an unmanaged container, it has to be activated manually by using the activation / deactivation methods defined in DependencyGraph. Deactivation must be also be manually managed, especially if the container has a very specific lifetime, for example if it should be active only while a user is not logged in.


let container = DependencyContainer {}

// Manually activate a container
DependencyGraph.activate(container)

// Manually deactivate a container
DependencyGraph.deactivate(container)

Dependency Registration

Dependencies can be registered by using the Dependency struct, a primitive component used to define a single dependency. Different initializers can be used to denote the way the dependency will be located, while modifying the scope and eagerness of the dependency can be achieved by using modifier-like methods on the dependency struct.

In order to initialize the Dependency struct, at the very least a factory function must be provided which is used to instantiate the dependency. The function can have an arbitrary number of parameters and as the definition uses parameter packs under the hood, there is no concrete upper limit to the number of parameters.


Dependency {
    Service()
}

Dependency { cache in
    RemoteRepository(cachedBy: cache)
}

Dependency { firstParameter, secondParameter in
    SomeService(firstParameter, secondParameter)
}

Optional configuration parameters, such as setting the way the dependency is located, it's scope and it's eagerness will be discussed in the following sections.

Register Dependencies By Name

By default, dependencies are registered and located by their type. Alternatively, dependencies may also be located by a name, which can be any string value. If multiple dependencies are defined for the same name in the same container, only one will be used and the rest will be discarded.


// Setting a name via initializer

Dependency(named: "service") {
    Service()
}

Dependency(named: "repository") { cache in
    RemoteRepository(cachedBy: cache)
}

Dependency(named: "some-service") { firstParameter, secondParameter in
    SomeService(firstParameter, secondParameter)
}

// Setting a name via modifier

Dependency {
    Service()
}
.named("service")

Dependency { cache in
    RemoteRepository(cachedBy: cache)
}
.named("repository")

Dependency { firstParameter, secondParameter in
    SomeService(firstParameter, secondParameter)
}
.named("some-service")

The name initializers and the the named dependency modifiers also have overloads that can be used with types that conform to either RawRepresentable or CustomStringConvertible in order to avoid using raw string values directly. In cases where the dependency must be located by name, but the name representing type is not easily convertible to a string, associated values may be used instead which require that the representation type conforms to Hashable.

Register Dependencies By Type

When using the Dependency struct by default the dependency is registered and located by it's type. However, sometimes it may be required to locate a dependency not by it's exact type, but by a protocol it conforms to, or a superclass it inherts from. Adding related type definitions to a dependency registration can be achieved by using the appropriate Dependency struct initializer or a modifier method.


// Setting a related type via initializer

Dependency(conformingTo: ServiceProtocol.self) {
    Service()
}

Dependency(inheritingFrom: ServiceSuperclass.self) {
    Service()
}

// Setting a related type via modifier

Dependency {
    Service()
}
.conforms(to: ServiceProtocol.self)

Dependency {
    Service()
}
.inherits(from: ServiceSuperclass.self)

Adding a conformance or inheritance to a dependecy that is of an unrelated type, will result in an error when attempting to inject the dependency.

Register Dependencies By Associated Value

Similar to registering a dependency by name, a dependency can also be registered by an associated value. The associated value must conform to the Hashable protocol. If multiple dependencies are defined for the same hashable value in the same container, only one will be used and the rest will be discarded.


// Setting an associated value via initializer

Dependency(for: Services.service) {
    Service()
}

// Setting an associated value via modifier

Dependency {
    Service()
}
.associated(with: Services.service)

When using associated value located dependencies, having a fast and collision free hashable implementation can make a significant difference in performance.

Dependency Scope

The scope of a dependency controls how it's lifetime is managed by the dependency graph once instantiated. The following four scopes are available:

Scope Lifetime
Instance A different instance will be used every time is it injected.
Shared The same instance of the dependency will be used every time is it injected, as long as there are strong references to it.
Singleton The same instance of the dependency will be used every time is it injected.
Managed The same instance of the dependency will be used every time is it injected, until the given scope is manually invalidated.

By default, the scope of a dependency is automatically resolved, based on whether the type of the dependency is a value type or a reference type. The scope automatically selected for value types is .instance, while for reference types .shared is used. Furthermore, as value types cannot be reference counted, using the .shared scope with a value type is equivalent to using the .instance scope.

The scope of a dependency can be set using the scope dependency modifier:


Dependency {
    SomeService()
}
.scope(.instance)

Dependency {
    EventTrackingService()
}
.scope(.shared)

Dependency {
    Repository()
}
.scope(.singleton)

Dependency {
    UserAccountManager()
}
.scope(.managed(by: principalChangedPublisher))

Managed Dependency Scopes

A managed dependency scope can be any class that conforms to the ManagedDependencyScopeProviding protocol. This protocol has a single requirement expressed as a function called onScopeInvalidated, that allows the custom type to register a callback that should be called by the scope when it is invalidated. This function returns a receipt type that conforms to the ManagedDependencyScopeReceipt protocol and can be used to cancel the observation. Additionally, Stitcher supports using a publisher directly as a managed scope, which will invalidate the scope of a dependency when the given publisher fires.

class PrincipalDatasource: ManagedDependencyScopeProviding {
    
    class Observation: ManagedDependencyScopeReceipt {
        typealias Handler = () -> Void
        
        private(set) var callback: Handler?
        
        var isCancelled: Bool {
            callback == nil
        }
        
        init(callback: @escaping Handler) {
            self.callback = callback
        }
        
        func cancel() {
            callback = nil
        }
    }
    
    private var observations: [Observation]
    
    var principal: UserAccount? {
        didSet {
            guard oldValue?.id != principal?.id else {
                return
            }
            
            principalChanged()
        }
    }
    
    init(principal: UserAccount?) {
        self.principal = principal
        self.observations = []
    }
    
    private func principalChanged() {
        observations.removeAll(where: { $0.isCancelled })
        observations.forEach({ $0.callback?() })
    }
    
    func onScopeInvalidated(perform action: @escaping () -> Void) -> any ManagedDependencyScopeReceipt {
        let observation = Observation(callback: action)
        observations.append(observation)
        
        return observation
    }
}
Dependency Eagerness

By default, dependencies are lazily instantiated when first required for injection. There are some cases, such as a singleton event tracking service for example, that require the dependency to be instantiated when it's dependency container is activated in order to be able to receive events immediately. To enable this behaviour the eagerness dependency modifier can be used, so that the DependencyGraph will instantiate the dependency when the dependency container will be activated.


Dependency {
    EventTracker()
}
.eagerness(.eager)

Dependency Groups

As discussed in a previous section, conditional dependency registrations can conditionally provide dependencies based on the state of the system. However, if several dependencies are conditionally enabled based on the same state it may be helpful to group them together and conditionally enable the entire group. A dependency group can be initialized by passing a provider closure that builds the registrar of the group.


DependencyContainer {

    DependencyGroup {
        
        MotionDetectionService()
        
    }
    .enabled(System.isGyroscopeSupported)

}

Enabling or disabling a dependency group can be achieved using the enabled dependency group modifier.

Other Registration Representations

Other than using the Dependency and DependencyGroup structs while building dependency containers, two more components that are representations of registrations can be used to register dependencies.

Autoclosure Registration Component

The first registration representing component are provider autoclosures, which can be used as a convenience for registering type located dependencies with zero parameter initializers.


DependencyContainer {
    
    SomeService()
    
    Dependency {
        SomeService()
    }

}

The two registrations above are equivalent. The autoclosure from the first dependency will not be invoked when the provider closure is evaluated, but when the dependency is instantiated by the dependency graph.

DependencyRepresenting Registration Component

Completely custom dependency registration types can also be used with a dependency container. The custom registration type must conform to the DependencyRepresenting protocol. The protocol has four requirements to define the characteristics of the dependency, three of them are optional and define the dependency locator, scope and eagerness. The fourth requirement is a property called dependencyProvider, which must provide a function that will be used to instantiate the dependency.


struct RepositoryDependency: DependencyRepresenting {
    
    var locator: DependencyLocator {
        .name(Self.name)
    }
    
    var scope: DependencyScope {
        .singleton
    }
    
    var eagerness: DependencyEagerness {
        .eager
    }
    
    var dependencyProvider: DependencyFactory.Provider<Repository> {
        DependencyFactory.Provider { cache in
            Repository(cachedBy: cache)
        }
    }
    
    static let name = "repository"
}

@Dependencies
var container = DependencyContainer {
    RepositoryDependency()
}

@Injected(name: RepositoryDependency.name)
var repository: Repository

Multiple Dependency Containers

In modular applications, it is possible to have different portions of the system segregated to smaller subsystems. In order to support this paradigm, it is possible to use multiple dependency containers, either by having multiple (managed or unmanaged) containers active at the same time, or by merging each subsystem container into a composite dependency container.


let containers: [DependencyContainer] = composeFeatureContainers()
let container = DependencyContainer(merging: containers)

Please note that the merged containers are strongly retained by the composite dependency container in order to correctly propagate observations.

Dependency Graph

The dependency graph represents a composite of all active dependency containers along with additional storage to store dependency instances and is the primary component needed to inject dependencies. Furthermore, it is responsible for handling the activation, indexing and deactivation of dependency containers.

Upon activating a dependency container, and depending on the options defined in StitcherConfiguration the dependency graph can index the registrar of a container in order to minimize the search time for dependencies during injection. During indexing, any eager dependencies are instantiated and stored for future use. If indexing is disabled, eager dependencies are instantiated immediately after activation.

Please note that indexing and eager dependency initialization is performed asyncronously as the operation directly depends on the size of the dependency container. If this operation must be awaited then the async variant of the activate method can be used instead. For managed containers, use the setContainer method of the @Dependencies propert wrapper. In general, in order to improve performance during indexing, prefer using multiple small containers that are activated independently of each other.

Automatic Injection

Automatic injection is performed by using the @Injected property wrapper. When using this property wrapper the dependency is injected lazily at the time when it is first requested which can be helpful for defining cyclic relationships between dependencies.

The injected property wrapper will attempt to inject the dependency, the first time it's wrapped value is requested. If the dependency cannot be found or it has a mismatching type it will cause a runtime precondition failure, which will print the file and line of the wrapped property that was the source of the failure.

Inject By Name

Dependencies can be injected by using the same name they were registered with in their dependency container. The registered dependency type must be convertible to the type of the wrapped property by type casting.

Injecting dependencies by name requires the use of the appropriate Injected initializer. The first argument has the label of name and defines the name the dependency will be located with. After the first argument of the initializer, the rest of the arguments are parsed as instantiation parameters used to instantiate the dependency.


enum Services: String {
    case service
    case repository
}

@Dependencies
var container = DependencyContainer {
    
    Dependency {
        Service()
    }
    .named(Services.service)
    
    Dependency { context in
        Repository(managedObjectContext: context)
    }
    .named(Services.repository)
}

@Injected(name: Services.service)
var service: Service

@Injected(name: Services.repository, ManagedObjectContexts.repositoryContext)
var repository: Repository

Inject By Type

The default way to register and inject dependencies is by their type, or a supertype related by a protocol conformance or by inheritance. Other that using the dependency type directly, a few common types are also supported:

  1. Optional Injects a dependency that matches the Wrapped type, or nil if no such dependency is found.

  2. Arrays Injects all dependencies that match the Element type, or an empty collection if no such dependencies are found.


class AccountRepository: PrincipalAware {}

class AccountSettingsRepository: PrincipalAware {}

@Dependencies
var container = DependencyContainer {
    Dependency {
        AccountRepository()
    }
    .conforms(to: PrincipalAware.self)
    
    Dependency {
        AccountSettingsRepository()
    }
    .conforms(to: PrincipalAware.self)
}

@Injected
var accountRepository: AccountRepository

@Injected
var accountRepository: AccountRepository?

@Injected
var principalAwareServices: [PrincipalAware]

Optional arrays are an additional type that is supported, but using optional collections should be avoided whenever possible. Instead, they can be replaced by non-optional collections.

Inject By Associated Value

Dependencies can be injected by using the same hashable value they were registered with, in their dependency container. The registered dependency type must be convertible to the type of the wrapped property by type casting.

Injecting dependencies by associated values requires the use of the appropriate Injected initializer. The first argument has the label of value and defines the value will be located with. After the first argument of the initializer, the rest of the arguments are parsed as instantiation parameters used to instantiate the dependency. The hashvalue of the given value must not change for different instances representing the same dependency.


enum UploadLocation: Hashable {
    case avatar
    case banner
}

struct Entity<T>: Hashable {}

@Dependencies
var container = DependencyContainer {
    
    Dependency {
        ProfileAvatarUploadService()
    }
    .associated(with: UploadLocation.avatar)
    
    Dependency {
        ProfileBannerUploadService()
    }
    .associated(with: UploadLocation.banner)
    
    
    Dependency { context in
        UserRepository(managedObjectContext: context)
    }
    .associated(
        with: Entity(
            of: User.self
        )
    )
}

@Injected(value: UploadLocation.avatar)
var avatarUploadService: UploadServiceProtocol

@Injected(value: UploadLocation.banner)
var bannerUploadService: UploadServiceProtocol

@Injected(value: Model(of: User.self), ManagedObjectContexts.usersContext)
var userRepository: UserRepository

Manual Injection

Manual injection follows the same principles as automatic injection, but allows for handling errors during injection instead of runtime errors. In contrast to automatic injection, manual injection is eager, meaning that the dependency will be instantiated immediately when requested. Injecting an arbitrary dependency can be achieved by using the inject family of methods of DependencyGraph.


@Dependencies
var container = DependencyContainer {
    
    Dependency {
        AccountService()
    }
    .named("account-service")
    
    Dependency { context in
        UserRepository(managedObjectContext: context)
    }
    
    Dependency {
        ImageUploadService()
    }
    .associated(with: UploadServices.images)
}

let accountService: AccountService = try DependencyGraph.inject(byName: "account-service")
let userRepository: UserRepository = try DependencyGraph.inject(byType: UserRepository.self, ManagedObjectContexts.usersContext)
let imageUploadService: ImageUploadService = try DependencyGraph.inject(byValue: UploadServices.images) 

Dependency Cycles

Cyclic dependency relationships are relationships between two types, that depend on each other during initialization. For example, given a primary type named Root and a secondary type named Leaf, root has a property of the leaf type that must be set during initialization and conversely leaf type has a property of root type that must be set during initialization. When trying to initialize these two types, an endless recursive loop will occur, as in order to instantiate root, you have to instantiate leaf and in order to instantiate leaf, you have to instantiate root.

In order to avoid these cycles, it is recommended to lazily inject the dependencies either by using the @Injected property wrapper or by invoking the manual injection methods of DependencyGraph when the property is first accessed. Stitcher has a runtime dependency cycle detection feature that detects these cycles and emits a descriptive error with the entire cycle mapped out, regardless of it's depth, so they can be easily detected and resolved.

// InjectionError description when a cycle is detected:
Dependency cycle detected, Type[Root] -> Type[Leaf] -> Type[Root].

The above error has the root type and all dependency instantiations performed in the same context so the cycle can be easily tracked and corrected. Please note that in order to improve injection performance, the runtime dependency cycle detection feature is conditionally enabled only in DEBUG builds by default.

Interoperabilty

Stitcher has a few interoperability access points, in order to configure the behaviour of the library or receive updates on state changes.

PostInstantiationAware Hook

The PostInstantiationAware protocol can be used to hook into the initialization of dependencies by the DependencyGraph in order to perform various actions, such as resource loading, injecting lazy dependencies etc. It has a single requirement, a function called didInstantiate, which is invoked by the dependency graph after a dependency is instantiated, but before it is injected.


class EventTrackingService: PostInstantiationAware {
    
    init() {}
    
    func didInstantiate() {
        sendEvent(named: "App started")
    }
    
    func sendEvent(named: String) {}
}

@Dependencies
var container = DependencyContainer {
    Dependency {
        EventTrackingService()
    }
    .scope(.singleton)
    .eagerness(.eager)
}

Please note, that there is no guarantee of the thread that will invoke the didInstantiate method, so using this hook to perform UI updates without first dispatching to the main thread, may lead to unexpected behaviours or even crashes.

DependencyGraph Change Observations

As dependency containers are activated, invalidated or deactivated the dependencies available to the dependency graph may change. In order to reload any dependencies at that time an observation is needed. The dependency graph has a publisher, that fires whenever the available dependencies are invalidated or changed, called graphChangedPublisher.

In order to alter any automatically injected dependencies in the event of a dependency graph change, there are the following helper functions defined in the @Injected property wrapper that can be of use:

  1. The loadIfNeeded function Loads the injected dependency if it is not already loaded, or if the loaded value is nil or an empty collection.
  2. The reload function Reloads the injected dependency.
  3. The autoreload function Automatically reloads the injected dependency after every change of the dependency graph.

Please note that extra care must be taken when reloading a dependency, such as cancelling or awaiting any running tasks owned by the previously injected instance.

Configuration

The behaviour of Stitcher can be configured using the properties defined in the StitcherConfiguration enum.

Option Behaviour
isIndexingEnabled Controls whether indexing of dependency containers is active. An unindexed container may have slower performance when looking up dependencies
approximateDependencyCount An approximate count of the number of defined dependencies used to optimize memory allocations during indexing
autoCleanupEnabled Controls whether the instance storage of the dependency graph will be automatically cleaned when the app is minimized.
runtimeCycleDetectionAvailability Controls the availability of the runtime dependency cycle detection feature.

🐞 Issues and Feature Requests

If you have a problem with the library, or have a feature request please make sure to open an issue.

GitHub

link
Stars: 2
Last commit: 2 weeks ago
Advertisement: IndiePitcher.com - Cold Email Software for Startups

Release Notes

v1.1.0
2 weeks ago

Performance & stability improvements, relaxed minimum requirements and macro suppport.

Swiftpack is being maintained by Petr Pavlik | @ptrpavlik | @swiftpackco | API | Analytics