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StarlangSoftware/ParseTree-Swift 1.0.8
Constituency Parse Tree Library
⭐️ 0
🕓 20 hours ago
.package(url: "https://github.com/StarlangSoftware/ParseTree-Swift.git", from: "1.0.8")

Constituency TreeBanks

When one talks about the “success” of a Natural Language Processing solution, they often refer to its ability to analyse the semantic and syntactic structure of a given sentence. Such a solution is expected to be able to understand both the linear and hierarchical order of the words in a sentence, unveil embedded structures, illustrate syntactical relationships and have a firm grasp of the argument structure. In order to meet the expectations, cutting edge Natural Language Processing systems like parsers, POS taggers or machine translation systems make use of syntactically or semantically annotated treebanks. Such treebanks offer a deep look through the surface and into the logical form of sentences.

Annotated treebanks can be categorised as constituency treebanks and dependency treebanks. Constituency treebanks offers clarity through resolving structural ambiguities, and successfully illustrates the syntagmatic relations like adjunct, complement, predicate, internal argument, external argument and such.

The very first comprehensive annotated treebank, the Penn Treebank, was created for the English language and offers 40,000 annotated sentences. Following the Penn Treebank, numerous treebanks annotated for constituency structures were developed in different languages including French, German, Finnish, Hungarian, Chinese and Arabic.

For Developers

You can also see Java, Python, Cython, C#, Js, or C++ repository.


  • Xcode Editor
  • Git


Install the latest version of Git.

Download Code

In order to work on code, create a fork from GitHub page. Use Git for cloning the code to your local or below line for Ubuntu:

git clone <your-fork-git-link>

A directory called Util-Swift will be created. Or you can use below link for exploring the code:

git clone https://github.com/starlangsoftware/ParseTree-Swift.git

Open project with XCode

To import projects from Git with version control:

  • XCode IDE, select Clone an Existing Project.

  • In the Import window, paste github URL.

  • Click Clone.

Result: The imported project is listed in the Project Explorer view and files are loaded.


From IDE

After being done with the downloading and opening project, select Build option from Product menu. After compilation process, user can run ParseTree-Swift.

Detailed Description


To load a TreeBank composed of saved ParseTrees from a folder:

TreeBank(folder: String)

To load trees with a specified pattern from a folder of trees:

TreeBank(folder: String, pattern: String)

the line above is used. For example,

let a = TreeBank("/mypath")

the line below is used to load trees under the folder "mypath" which is under the current folder. If only the trees with ".train" extension under the same folder are to be loaded:

let a = TreeBank("/mypath", ".train")

To iterate over the trees after the TreeBank is loaded:

for i in 0..<a.size() {
	let p = a.get(i)

a block of code like this can be useful.


To load a saved ParseTree:

ParseTree(file: URL)

is used. Usually it is more useful to load a TreeBank as explained above than loading the ParseTree one by one.

To find the node number of a ParseTree:


leaf number of a ParseTree:


above methods can be used.


author={N. {Kara} and B. {Marşan} and M. {Özçelik} and B. N. {Arıcan} and A. {Kuzgun} and N. {Cesur} and D. B. {Aslan} and O. T. {Yıldız}},
booktitle={2020 Innovations in Intelligent Systems and Applications Conference (ASYU)}, 
title={Creating A Syntactically Felicitous Constituency Treebank For Turkish}, 


Stars: 0
Last commit: Yesterday
jonrohan Something's broken? Yell at me @ptrpavlik. Praise and feedback (and money) is also welcome.

Release Notes

Created ParallelTreeBank

Swiftpack is being maintained by Petr Pavlik | @ptrpavlik | @swiftpackco | API | Analytics