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A unidirectional data flow library with an unorthodox mixture of static (reducer hierarchy) and dynamic (dependencies, services) features.
.package(url: "https://github.com/AnarchoSystems/RedCat.git", from: "v0.6.0")


What is RedCat?

A red cat is not an ox!

RedCat is a unidirectional data flow framework with an emphasis on ergonomics. RedCat provides a couple of useful Reducer protocols that make composition of reducers quite readable. There are also a handful of concrete Reducer types that enable you to create Reducers with closures like in other such frameworks.



The core component of every unidirectional data flow framework is the reducer. Here is one:

let incDecReducer = Reducer {(action: IncDec, state: inout Int in
   switch action {
      case .inc:
         state += 1
      case .dec:
         state -= 1

The type of the above example will be inferred to Reducer<ClosureReducer<Int, IncDec>>. This is because in RedCat, reducers aren't just wrappers or type aliases for a certain type of closure, they are their own thing. Here's a more verbose way to achieve something similar to the above:

struct IncDecReducer : ReducerProtocol {
   func apply(_ action: IncDec, to state: inout State) {
      switch action {
         case .inc:
            state += 1
         case .dec:
            state += 1


let incDecReducer = IncDecReducer()

While more verbose, this may come in handy when dealing with more complex scenarios. Sometimes, an action cannot meaningfully be decomposed into subactions and the reducer function becomes lengthy. In this case, you want to factor code out into other meaningfully named functions. If reducers are defined by anonymous functions, it is not quite clear where to put those helpers. If they are self-contained structs, the helpers can just be private methods of the reducer.

Composing Reducers

Composing reducers is quite simple:

let reducer = myReducer1
                  .compose(with: myReducer2)
                  .compose(with: myReducer3)

The only prerequisite is that their state and action types agree.

Since currently there are no wrappers that support changing the action type, we recommend the more verbose spelling:

struct Dispatcher : DispatchReducer {

   func dispatch(_ action: HighLevelAction) -> VoidReducer<MyConcreteRootState> {
         switch action {
             case .module1(let module1Action):
                 Module1Reducer().bind(to: \.module1).send(module1Action)
             case .module2(let module2Action):
                 Module2Reducer().bind(to: \.module2).send(module2Action)
                 .compose(with: someVoidReducerReactingToModule2Actions)


Note that this is also a bit more efficient than the usual composition of reducers with different action types, since the usual composition would destructure the action using if case (which is dynamic), while an exhaustive switch over an enum can be optimized. Also, it is safer, since you cannot accidentally miss a case.


Of course, the main goal is to write reducers only for components of the state and then aggregate them into a reducer for the whole state. In order to make this easy, there are a couple of helpers.

For instance, you can bind a reducer to a certain mutable property of your state:

struct Foo {
   var bar : Int
   static let reducer = DetailReducer(\Foo.bar) {

Or you can bind it to the associated value of an enum case

import CasePaths

enum MyEnum : Emptyable {

   case empty
   case bar(Int)
   static let reducer = AspectReducer(/MyEnum.bar){

Here, we used a CasePath. Additionally, the enum has to conform to Emptyable or Releasable (parent protocol of Emptyable) to minimize the risk of triggering a copy-on-write.

Additionally, there's a way to bind the reducers implicitly to properties or cases while composing:

let structReducer = reducer1.compose(with: reducer2, property: \.foo)
let enumReducer = reducer3.compose(with: property3, aspect: /EnumType.bar)

Naming Schemes

Plain reducers, aspect reducers and detail reducers come in two flavors:

XXXReducerProtocol // protocol requires "apply" method
XXXReducerWrapper // protocol requires another reducer as "body"

and a struct XXXReducer. The plain Reducer can be initialized using a closure or using a keypath/casepath and a wrapped reducer. This makes Aspect/Detail in Aspect/DetailReducer optional, as the Reducer will then just wrap itself around the appropriate type.

For discoverability, we recommend adding reducer types, "namespaced" by their Statetype, as nested types to Reducers, a public "namespace" provided by RedCat.

The Store

If you're done composing the reducer, you may wonder how to make it do something useful. Unidirectional data flow frameworks are opinionated about this: There should only be one "global" app state, and the view should be a function of this. In order to make this work, there is a Store type.

In RedCat, this comes in three main flavours:

  1. The ObservableStore<State, Action> that can be observed using addObserver. If Combine can be imported, this store is also known as CombineStore<State, Action>.
  2. The Store<Reducer> that is aware of the used recuder. This too is observable, in fact, ObservableStore<State, Action> is really just a type alias for Store<AnyReducer<State, Action>.
  3. The StoreStub<State, Action> which is seen by Services. This one has very limited functionalities in order to constrain the Services.

Actions are sent to the store via its send or sendWithUndo methods. This is assumed to happen on the main thread. The action will then be enqueued, sent to the services (which may or may not enqueue further actions), sent to the reducer (which mutates the global state) and then sent to the services again (which may again enqueue further actions). This process is repeated until no service has further actions to enqueue (or they enqueue them asynchronously). For this whole process, the observers are notified exactly once.

Note that there is a StoreProtocol that ObservableStore and Store conform to. This one provides a whole lot of functionaility. It is not recommended though to conform to this directly. Instead, conform to StoreWrapper which plays the role of a decorator and comes with a lot of default implementations.

One noteworthy technicality: Store decorators (like e.g. the MapStore) are designed in a way that they share their identity with some rootStore. In order to make that possible, types conforming to StoreWrapper have to provide not only a wrapped store (which has the semantics of "the store with this decorator removed"), but also a method to recover this store from the wrapped store. Usually, you just hand the instance properties to a closure by value for that. The StoreWrapper protocol will then derive the rootStore with all decorators removed and a way to reconstruct the entire chain of decorators.

This way, you can create an API that makes it look like you are referring to a decorated store with a fixed identity while in reality, the decorated store may be created and destroyed all the time. RedCat uses this to implement sendWithUndo without making any assumptions about the lifecycle of decorated stores.


Every app has to handle side effects somehow. For this, RedCat has dedicated DetailService and AppEventService classes. The open DetailService class exposes three methods that can be overridden: onAppInit, onUpdate and onShutdown. The onUpdate method reacts to changes of some equatable property ("Detail") of the state that you can specify, the other two methods react to initialization and shutdown of the store. The open AppEventService class exposes only onAppInit and onShutdown.

In each of the above methods, you are able to access the Service's store property which allows you to send actions to the store or inspect the state. Additionally, you can use the Injected property wrapper to access the App's Dependencies (see below) during those methods.

The services are the perfect place to orchestrate further actions, either immediately or by registering an event listener and hopping back to the main queue whenever an event arrives. The Dependencies passed to the service are the ideal place to configure, e.g, the source of asynchronous events.

For discoverability, we recommend adding service types as nested types to Services, a public "namespace" provided by RedCat.


As mentioned above, services depend on some Dependencies type. This type works quite similarly to SwiftUI's environment, except it's named Dependencies in order to avoid name conflicts that break your property wrappers. The main way to work with this is as follows:

  1. You declare some type that will be used as a key for Dependencies' subscript:
enum MyKey : Dependency {
   static let defaultValue = "Hello, World!"
  1. You add an instance property to Dependencies:
extension Dependencies {
   var myValue : Int {
      get {self[MyKey.self]}
      set {self[MyKey.self] = newValue} //only required if you want to be able to change it
  1. Optionally, you set specific values when building the environment:
let environment = Dependencies {
   Bind(\.myValue, to: "42")

There's a noteworthy distinction to SwiftUI's Environment: The key type doesn't need to conform to Dependency. There's actually a more general version of this:

enum MyKey : Config {
   func value(given: Environment) -> Int {
      given.debug ? 1337 : 42

This is very useful if the value usually only depends on other stored properties and only sometimes needs to be overridden.

Another key feature of Dependencies is memoization. Whenever the Dependencies instance doesn't find a stored value, it computes the default value - and stores it. This is done by reference (hence, the nonmutating getter), hence, if the associated value is a reference type, it will be retained. This is desirable whenever your dependency is designated for a service rather than a reducer. The only tradeoff is that reading environment values is not threadsafe and has to occur on the main thread.

Proofs of Concept

There are some toy projects showcasing how RedCat can be used.

  • RedCatTicTacToe: a Tic-Tac-Toe implementation using RedCat.
  • RedCatWeather: a weather app communicating with a fake backend.
  • RedCatChat: a chat app with two factor authentication and a fake backend.


Swift Package Manager

In Package.swift, add the following:

dependencies: [
        .package(url: "https://github.com/AnarchoSystems/RedCat.git", from: "0.5.0")

Similar Projects

I took a lot of inspiration from the following projects:

Further Reading


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Release Notes

13 weeks ago

v0.6.0 is out!

  • Services are now as close to "abstract classes" as the Swift type system currently allows, including method stub generation.

  • Horizontal Reducer composition has been restricted. It is preferred to use the DispatchReducerProtocol. You can still horizontally compose Reducers, but pullbacks need to be done manually now.

  • Huge overhaul of the Store: it is now supported to write new store types as decorators using the StoreWrapper protocol. These should be value types. If implemented correctly, you will still have a reference to the "root" store which you are decorating.

  • Store, ObservableStore and CombineStore are now actually the same type. The only difference is that ObservableStore and CombineStore assume the main reducer to be an AnyReducer<State, Action>. The type alias CombineStore is still only available if Combine is available.

  • Since Store is now a final class, Stores are now created using an initializer rather than a static method. Depending on the argument label for your reducer (either reducer or erasing), you get a Store<Reducer> or a Store<AnyReducer<Reducer.State, Reducer.Action>> (a.k.a. ObservableStore<Reducer.State, Reducer.Action>).

  • Test coverage has greatly improved

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