Swiftpack.co - Package - argentlabs/hopper

Hopper is an Open-Source Mixer for Mobile-friendly private transfers on Ethereum. It allows the private transfer of value from one Ethereum account to another, via an iOS client.

Users can deposit notes of 1 ETH into a mixer smart contract and withdraw them later to a different account by only providing a Zero-Knowledge proof (zkSNARK) that they previously deposited a note into the mixer, without revealing from which account that note was sent.

Relayers are used to post transactions to the blockchain so that the recipient of a private transfer can withdraw a private note from the mixer without needing any prior ether.

This project is based on previous work on trustless Ethereum mixers by @barryWhiteHat and @HarryR.

Perform a private transfer on iOS

⚠️ Please note that Hopper is in alpha state and should be used with caution. It has not been properly audited and may contain bugs that result in the loss of your funds. ⚠️

  1. Download the Hopper iOS app from TestFlight or build and run the Xcode project in ./ios/Hopper/Hopper.xcworkspace
  2. In the app, tap the "+" button in the upper-right corner. Enter the origin address (the address from which you want to send value) and the destination address (the address that will receive the value transfer). Tap "Commit". Your intention to perform a private transfer gets sent to the relayer which posts it to the mixer contract on your behalf. An entry gets inserted into the app's table to represent your commitment.
  3. Send 1 ETH from the origin address to the mixer address, using a gas limit of 1,000,000. You can see the mixer address by tapping the "Fund" button next to your commitment in the app's table.
  4. When your transfer gets mined, it will be detected by the client and the "Fund" button will change into a "Withdraw" button. You can see how many other people have transferred a note to the mixer since you funded your commitment. Wait for a few commitments to be added to the mixer by others in order to increase your anonymity set. When you're satisfied that you have waited long enough, tap "Withdraw" to generate a Zero-Knowledge proof that you previously sent a commitment to the mixer (without revealing which commitment it was). The proof gets send to the relayer which posts it to the mixer contract. The mixer contract validates the proof, sends 1 ETH to the destination address (minus the gas cost paid by the relayer) and marks the commitment as "withdrawn".

Technical details


The iOS client forms a commitment by computing the sha256 hash of a randomly generated secret and the destination address. When this commitment is sent to the mixer contract (along with 1 ETH), it is added as the leaf of a merkle tree:

leaf_hash = sha256(secret, destination_address)


To withdraw the commitment, the client must prove to the mixer that it knows the secret behind one of the leaves added to the merkle tree, without revealing that secret. More precisely, it proves that it knows (1) a merkle path from a certain leaf to the root of the merkle tree and (2) the pre-image of that leaf:

(1) merkle_root = merkle_verify(leaf_hash, leaf_index, merkle_path)
(2) leaf_hash = sha256(secret, destination_address)

In the above constraints, merkle_root, and destination_address are public inputs that can be read by anyone at the time of withdrawal, whereas leaf_index, merkle_path and secret are private inputs that are not sent to the contract.

In order to prevent double spending, the client must also provide a so-called "nullifier" as public input, which will be stored by the contract to mark the commitment as "withdrawn". The nullifier is computed as the hash of the secret:

(3) nullifier = hash(secret)

Equations (1), (2) and (3) make up the constraints of the zkSNARK circuit.

MiMC Hashing

In order to minimize the number of constraints in the zkSNARK circuit and as a result minimize the proving time, equations (1) and (3) use a special type of hash function known as MiMC, that have Minimal Multiplicative Complexity. In contrast, because the security properties of this type of hashing function are still being studied, we chose to use the highly reliable sha256 hash method to compute the commitment leaf in equation (2). This is because if MiMC turns out not to be pre-image resistant and we use MiMC instead of sha256 in (2), an attacker could come up with an arbitrary merkle path and withdraw any deposit. Using sha256 in (2) protects us against that as long as the hash function x -> MiMC(x, R), where R is a fixed constant, is pre-image resistant.


Build the Prover library for macOS

Requires brew.

  • Install dependencies:
    brew install python3 pkg-config boost cmake gmp openssl
  • Build the library:
    make build

Build the Prover library for iOS

Requires brew.

  • Install dependencies:
    brew install python3 pkg-config boost cmake gmp openssl
  • Build the library:
    make ios-build-universal

Run Tests

Test the zkSNARK Prover (Python)

  • Install dependencies:
    pip3 install py_ecc==1.4.2 bitstring pysha3 coverage
  • Run tests:
    make python-test

Test the mixer contract (Solidity)

Requires npm.

  • Install dependencies:
    npm i -g truffle ganache-cli
  • Launch Ganache on port 7545
    ganache-cli -p 7545
  • Run tests:
    make solidity-test


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